Atomic Bomb Literature: A Bibliography

This bibliography, compiled by Urszula Styczek, Tomoko Nakamura, & Toko Nakamura, contains literary works in English on the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Entries in this list of works are cited alphabetically by the author's last name. The works are classified according to the author, and listed chronologically.


Entries in the list:

Agawa, Hiroyuki

Ibuse, Masuji

Hara, Tamiki

Hayashi, Kyoko

Kurihara, Sadako

Nagai, Takashi

Oda, Makoto

Oe, Kenzaburo

Ota, Yoko

Sata, Ineko

Shoda, Shinoe

Toge, Sankichi

We aimed to work only from primary sources. The information was included in the list only when we gained access to it. In information retrieval through the Internet, we used the following sites:

NACSIS Webcat: http://webcat.nii.ac.jp

Database provided by Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum:

http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/database/

NDL-OPAC: http://www.ndl.go.jp/en/index.html


References:

Styczek, Urszula gEnglish Translations of Atomic Bomb Literature,h 2004@(unpublished)

Nakamura, Tomoko.Hiroshima and Nagasaki: books available in English. Hiroshima: the Publication Center of the Chugoku Shimbun Newspaper, 2003.

Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani, eds., and trans. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions, 1995.

Lippit, Mizuta Noriko, and Kyoko Iriye Selden, eds. Japanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fiction. An East Gate Book. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1991.

Selden, Kyoko, and Mark Selden, eds. The Atomic Bomb Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New YorkFM. E. Sharpe, 1989.

Oe, Kenzaburo, ed. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.

Brians, Paul. Nuclear Holocausts: Atomic War in Fiction. 14 Sept. 2004 <http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/nuclear/index.htm>.


Agawa, Hiroyuki

Agawa, Hiroyuki (December 1920 - ) was born in Hiroshima. On graduating from Tokyo University in 1942, he was trained in the Naval Air Corps in Taiwan and worked in communications and intelligence in China. He returned to Hiroshima, where his parents had experienced the atomic bomb, in March 1946. The reunion is recounted in his earliest work, "Nennen saisai" ("Years and ages," 1946). "August 6," as Agawa notes in a postscript, combines the stories of friends and acquaintances who experienced the bombing into the testimony of one family. Occupation censorship at the time was strict, but the story passed because, the author later observed, "it made no reference to the problems of after-effect and continued no overt criticism of the U.S.""Devil's Heritage"("Ma no isan,"1953), a documentary novel, is a fuller account of the bombing through the eyes of a young Tokyo reporter, handling, among other topics, the death of his Hiroshima nephew and survivors' reactions to the Atomic bomb Casualty Commission, the U.S. agency that conducted research on atomic victims. Agawa wrote about his experiences as a student soldier in "Haru no shiro" ("Spring castle," 1952, Yomiuri Literary Prize) and "Kurai hato" ("Dark waves,"1974). His other major works include "Kumo no bohyo" ("Grave markers in the clouds," 1955), "Gunkan Nagato no shogai" ("The life of the warship Nagato," 1975), and three biographical novels, "Yamamoto Isoroku" (1965), "Yonai Mitsumasa" (1978) and "Inoue Seibi" (1986). In 1994 Agawa was awarded the Noma Bungei Prize and in 1999 -the Order of Culture (Bunka Kunsho).

Translations:

Agawa, Hiroyuki. The Devil's Heritage. Trans. John M. Maki. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@---,hAugust 6.h Trans. Kyoko Selden. The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: An East Gate Book, M. E. Sharpe,1989.pp.3-23.


Ibuse, Masuji

Ibuse, Masuji ( February 1898 - July 1993) was born in Hiroshima and attended the French literature department of Waseda University. He appeared on the literary scene with the publication of gSalamanderh in 1929, and thereafter continued to write in a style characterized by a unique blend of humour and bitterness. He was awarded the Naoki Prize for gJohn Manjirou, the Cast-Away; his Life and Adventureh and continued to publish works filled with warmth and kindliness, while at the same time showing his keen power of observation. In 1966, he was awarded the Order of Cultural Merit for gBlack Rainh (gKuroi ameh), which describes the tragedy of Hiroshima with calm restraint. gThe Crazy Irish (gKakitsubatah) was first published in 1951, gBlack Rainh in 1966.

References:

Oe, Kenzaburo, ed. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985

Treat, John Whittier. Pools of Water, Pillars of Fire: The Literature of Ibuse Masuji. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

---, Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Matsuoka, Naomi, and John T. Dorsey. "Narrative Strategies of Understatement in Black Rain as a Novel and a Film.h Hibakusha Cinema: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the Nuclear Image in Japanese Film. Broderick, Mick, ed. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996.

Translations:

Ibuse, Masuji. "The Crazy Iris." Original Japanese publication, 1951. Trans. Ivan Morris (Encounter, vol. 6, no. 5 (1956). In Kenzaburo Oe, ed. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. (Japanese version, Tokyo: Shueisha Press, 1984). New York: Grove, 1985.

---, gThe Far-worshiping Commander.h Trans. Glenn Shaw. The Shadow of Sunrise: selected stories of Japan and the war. Selection and introduction by Saeki, Shoichi. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1966. pp.157-186.

---, hBlack Rainh Trans. John Bester. Japan Quarterly 14.2(1967): pp.187-215; 14.3: pp.333-357; 14.4: pp.469-487.

---, hBlack Rainh Trans. John Bester. Japan Quarterly.15.1(1968):pp.69-98; 15.2: pp.195-223; 15.3:pp.330-359.

---, Black Rain. Trans. John Bester. Tokyo and Palo Alto: Kodansha International, 1969. London: Secker & Warburg, 197l. New York: Bantam, 1985.

---, hThe Crazy Irish Trans. Ivan Morris. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. KenzaburO Oe.Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.pp.17-35.


Hara, Tamiki

Hara, Tamiki (November 1905 - March 1951) was born in Hiroshima. While he was a middle school student, he became familiar with Russian literature, and also began to write poetry. He particularly admired the poets Saisei Murou and Paul Verlaine. He graduated from the English literature department of Keio University, and was later exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. This terrifying experience produced stories as gSummer Flowersh, for which he was awarded the first Takitaro Minakami Prize, and gChinkonkah (gRequiemh), which are now considered to be among his finest works. He committed suicide in 1951. gSummer Flowersh (gNatsu no hanah) was first published in 1947, gFrom the Ruinsh (gHaikyou karah) in 1947, gPrelude to Annihilationh (gKaimetsu no joukyokuh) in 1949, and gLand of My Heart's Desireh (gShingan no kunih) in 1951.

References:

Oe, Kenzaburo, ed. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.

Minear, Richard H. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Treat, John Whittier. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Treat, John Whittier. gEarly Hiroshima Poetry.h Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese 20.2 November (1986): pp. 221-225.

Minear, Richard H. gHaiku and Hiroshima: Hara Tamiki.h Modern Haiku 19.1 WinterOSpring (1988): pp. 11-17.

Bary, Brett de. gAfter the Apocalypse: Hara Tamikis Writings on the Bombing of Hiroshimah Journal of the Association of Teaching Japanese 15.2 (1980): pp. 150-169.

Translations:

Hara, Tamiki. gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. Pacific Spectator 7.2 Spring (1953): pp. 202-212.

---, gThis is a human being.h Ed. and trans. Ichiro Kono and Rikutaro Fukuda. An Anthology of Modern Japanese Poetry. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1957. p. 21.

---, gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. Introduction to Contemporary Japanese Literature. Tokyo: Bunka Shinkokai, 1959.

---, gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. Literary Review 6.1 (1962): pp. 25-34.

---, gGive Me Water.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. 15. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 15.

---, gA Moment Bewitched.h The Songs of Hiroshima-An Anthology. Ed. and trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. 52. Rev. ed. 1967. 56. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. 34.@Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. 63. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 63.

---, gGlittering fragments.h Trans. Geoffrey Bownas and Anthony Thwaite. The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,1964. p221.

---, gIn the Fire, a Telegraph Pole.h Trans. Geoffrey Bownas and Anthony Thwaite. The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964. p221.

---, gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. The Shadow of Sunrise: Selected Stories of Japan and the War. Ed. Shoichi Saeki. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1966. pp. 119-132.

---, gEternal Green.h The Songs of Hiroshima-An Anthology. Ed. and trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p.1964. p. 52. Rev. ed.,1967. p. 56. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 32. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 63. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 63.

---,gAn epitaph.h Trans. Akinori Tani. Poetry Nippon 51-52 (1980): p. 30.

---, gSuch is the human being.h Trans. Akinori Tani. Poetry Nippon 49-50 (1980): p. 24.

---, gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. The Catch and Other War Stories. Selection and Introduction by Shoichi Saeki. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd.; California: Palo Alto, 1981. pp. 119-132.

---, gSummer Flower.h Trans. George Saito. Timely and Timeless. Contemporary Prose. Ed. Priscilla Galloway, Ph.D. Clarke. Toronto: Irwin and Company Ltd., 1983. pp. 240-250.

---. gSummer@Flower.h Trans. George Saito. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985. pp. 37-54.

---, gThe Land of Heart's Desire.h Trans. John Bester. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985. pp. 55-62.

---,gLand of My Heart's Desireh Trans. Richard H. Minear. University of Massachusetts Asian Studies Committee Occasional Papers 14. Translation and commentary by Richard H. Minear. 20 pp. 1989.

---,gSummer Flowersh Trans. Richard H. Minear. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. pp. 45-60.

---, gFrom the Ruinsh Trans. Richard H. Minear. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. pp. 61-78.

---,gPrelude to Annihilationh Trans. Richard H. Minear. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. pp. 79-113.

---,gThe homeless child's ChristmashTrans. Richard Minear. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. p. 35.

---, gBROKEN PIECES, GLITTERINGh Trans. Richard H. Minear. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. p. 58.

---, gThis Is A Human Beingh Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. p. 168.

---, gGive Me Waterh Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. pp. 170-171.

---, gGlittering Pieces of Debrisch Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. p. 149.


Hayashi, Kyoko

Hayashi, Kyoko (August 1930 - ) was born in Nagasaki and spent the years from 1931 to 1945 in Shanghai. After returning to Japan, she was enrolled in the third year of Nagasaki Girls' High School and was exposed to the atomic bomb while working as a recruit in the Mitsubishi Munitions Factory. She later studied for a time in a special course for women affiliated with the Nagasaki Medical University, but left before graduation. She started to write in 1962. gRitual of Deathh (gMatsuri no bah) in which she described her experiences as an atomic bomb victim with a restrained lyricism, was awarded the 73rd Akutagawa Prize. gTwo Grave Markersh (gFutari no bohyouh) and gRitual of Deathh were first published in the same year 1975. Hayashi's works in the seventies include also a sequence of twelve short stories titled gGyaman bi-doroh (gCut glass, blown glassh). Two of them are gThe Empty Canh (gAki kanh) and gYellow Sandh (gKousah), both first published in 1978. The latter handles Hayashi's experience in Shanghai, which is related to the bombing. Hayashi's first full-length novel, gNaki ga gotokih (gAs if nothing had happenedh) introduces a survivor who was brought up in China. The Nagasaki theme continues in her two recent collections, the Kawabata Prize - winning gSangai no ieh (gHome in the three worldsh) and gMichih (gthe Pathh). Hayashi lived near Washington, D.C., from 1985 to 1988.

References:

Oe, Kenzaburo, ed. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985

Lippit, Mizuta Noriko, and Kyoko Iriye Selden, eds. Japanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fiction. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1991.

Treat, John Whittier. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Translations:

Hayashi, Kyoko. hRitual of Deathh Trans. Kyoko Selden. Japan Interpreter 12 Winter@i1978j: pp.54-93.

---, hRitual of Deathh Trans. Kyoko Selden. Ed. Marty Sklar. Nuke Rebuke: Writers and Artists against Nuclear Energy and Weapons. Iowa City: The Spirit That Moves Us Press, 1984. pp. 21-57.

---, gThe Empty Canh Trans. Margaret Mitsutani. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.pp.127-143.

---, hTwo Grave Markersh Trans. Kyoko Selden. The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 18.1 January-March (1986): pp.23-35.

---, hTwo Grave Markersh Trans. Kyoko Selden. The Atomic Bomb Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Eds. Kyoko and Mark Selden. An East Gate Book. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1989. pp.24-54.

---, hYellow Sandh Trans. Kyoko Selden. Japanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fiction. 1991. pp.207-216.


Kurihara, Sadako

Kurihara, Sadako (March 1913-March 2005 ) was born Doi Sadako in Hiroshima as a second daughter of a farm family. She started writing poems and tanka at the age of thirteen. She graduated from Kobe Women' High School. A Hiroshima A-bomb survivor, she founded Chugoku Bunmei Renmei (Chugoku Culture Association) and published the first issue of "Chugoku Bunka". Since then she has been deeply involved in the antinuclear movement through her literary activities. In 1969 Kurihara founded a citizens' group, "Gensuikin Hiroshima Haha no Kai" ("Hiroshima Mothers' Group against A-Bombs and H-Bombs"), and published an anthology of poetry about Hiroshima, "The River of Flame Running in Japan," which she distributed at the Sixth World Conference against A-Bombs and H-Bombs. The following year she started the journal, "The Rivers in Hiroshima," that continued through five bimonthly issues. In 1962 Kurihara organized a publishing committee and privately published "The Songs of Hiroshima" with parallel versions in English and Japanese. She also edited journal, "Testimony of Hiroshima and Nagasaki" (1982), wrote essays (for example, "Embracing the Core Scene of Hiroshima," 1975), and attended numerous conferences, among them the NGO International Symposium in 1977 on "The Reality of the A-Bomb"; the 1982 International Literature Conference in Cologne, Germany etc. She was also involved in the 1983 Conference of Asian Writers in Hiroshima, protesting against nuclear development, poverty, and oppression. Her publications include: "The Black Egg" ("Kuroi tamago," 1946), "The River of Flame Running in Japan" (1960), "The Songs of Hiroshima" (1962), "Watashi wa Hiroshima wo shogen suru" ("I, A Hiroshima Witness", 1967), "Dokyumento Hiroshima 24 nen" ("Documents about Hiroshima Twenty-Four Years Later," 1970), "Hiroshima to iu toki" ("When I Say Hiroshima," 1976), "The Future Begins Here" (1979), "Kakujidai ni ikiru" ("Living in Nuclear Age," essays, 1982), "Genbaku Kashu, Kushu" an anthology of tanka and haiku about the A-Bomb (1991), "Genbaku shishu," an anthology of poems about the A-Bomb (1991), "Hiroshima in Questions," essays (1992), and many others. In 1990 she was awarded the third Tanimoto Kiyoshi Prize.

References:

Minear, Richard H. Through Japanese Eyes. A Cite Book, New York: Center for International Training and Education, 1994.

---, Black Eggs: Poems by Kurihara Sadako. Translated with an introduction and notes by Richard Minear. Michigan: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1994.

Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani, Ed. White Flash: Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995.

Richard Minear. Through Japanese Eyes. New York: Center for International Training and Education, 1994.

Translations:

Kurihara, Sadako. gI would be a Witness for Hiroshima.h Hiroshima Sings: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima: YMCA Book Center, 1961. p.11. The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. pp. 38-40. Rev. Ed. 1967. pp. 40-42. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971.p. 98. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 45. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 45.

---, gLet's Help Them Bear.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. p. 14. Rev. Ed. 1967. p. 18. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 94. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 17. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 17.

---, gWe Shall Bring Forth New Lifeh Trans. Wayne Lammers.The Songs of Hiroshima: When Hiroshima Is Spoken of. Hiroshima: Anthology Publishing Association, Hiroshima, 1980.

---, gThe Suffering of writers who experienced Hiroshima, and contemporary literature on the subject of the atomic bomb.h Hiroshima: When Hiroshima Is Spoken of. Hiroshima: Anthology Publishing Association, 1983.

---, gIn Front of Monument for the Atom Bomb Dead -85' Hiroshima AppealhThe Songs of Hiroshima: When Hiroshima Is Spoken of. Hiroshima: Anthology Publishing Association, 1985.

---, gFour Poems (1941-1945) by the Hiroshima Poet Kurihara Sadakoh Trans. Richard Minear. The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars vol. 21, January-March (1989): pp. 46-49.

---, Black Eggs. Translated with an introduction and notes by Richard Minear. Michigan: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1994.

---, hLet Us Be Midwivesh (pp. 146-147), gWhen We Say HiroshimaՁh (pp. 147-148), gHiroshima and the Emperors New Clothesh (pp. 148-149), gThe Flag, 1h (pp. 194-195), gIndictment of Japanh (pp. 195-197), gGold and Nukesh (pp. 197-198) Trans. Richard Minear. Through Japanese Eyes. New York: Center for International Training and Education, 1994.

---, gLet Us Be Midwives!h Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero. Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1995. p. 162

---, gBikini, Be with Hiroshima and Nagasaki.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995.p. 16.

---, gFor the Dead of August.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 20.

---, gSachiko-san, Who Died in the Atomic Bombing.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 24.

---, gEvening Primroses.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 26.

---, gA City in Camouflage.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 29.

---, gFish Talk.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 39.

---, gI Witness Hiroshima.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 43.

---, gHiroshima Being Questioned.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 63.

---, gThe National Responsibility for War and the Victims of Nuclear Radiation.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 64.

---, gThe War Experience and Literature.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 65.

---, gWhen We Say gHiroshima.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 76.

---, gFlag.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 76.

---, gLet Us Not Forget Hiroshima/ Auschwitz.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 88.

---, gThe Entrance to the Future.h Trans.Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995. p. 97.

---, gWhen We Say Hiroshima'.h Trans. Richard H. Minear Atomic Ghosts: Poets Respond to the Nuclear Age. Ed. John Bradley. Minneapolis, MN: Coffee House Press, 1995. pp. 202-203

---, When We Say Hiroshima: Selected Poems. Translated with an introduction and notes by Richard Minear. Michigan Monograph Series in Japanese Studies, 23. Michigan: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1999.


Nagai, Takashi

Nagai, Takashi (February 1908 - May 1951), a Catholic scientist, was born in Matsue, Shimane Prefecture as a son of a doctor. In 1928 he entered the Nagasaki Medical College (now Nagasaki University), where he later taught radiology. He was baptized in 1934 prior to his marriage to a woman form a Catholic family. Nagai had contacted leukemia in the radiology laboratory before the bombing, but the injuries from the bomb aggravated his condition. From his sickbed he directed rescue operations of the University Hospital, studied the efforts of the bomb, and wrote several books. Among his best-known works are gThe Bells of Nagasakih (gNagasaki no kaneh) and (gKono ko wo nokoshiteh) (gLeaving these childrenh). The latter is a testament expressing his feelings for his two children, Makoto and Kayano, whom he knew he was to leave soon. Nagai's more technical writings, gAtomic Bomb Rescue and Relief Reporth (gNagasaki Idai genshi bakudan kyuugo houkokuh), were discovered in 1970. gThe Bells of Nagasakih was first published in 1949.

Translations:

Nagai, Takashi, ed. We of Nagasaki: The Story of Survivors in an Atomic Wasteland. Trans. Ichiro Shirato and Herbert B. L. Silverman. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. 1951.

---, ed. Living Beneath the Atomic Cloud: The Testimony of the Children of Nagasaki. Tokyo: Sanyusha Shuppan, 1979.

---, The Bells of Nagasaki: A Message of Hope from a Witness, a Doctor. Trans. William Johnston. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1984.

---. Atomic Bomb Rescue and Relief Report: Report to the President of Nagasaki Medical University Regarding Activities of the 11th Medical Corps, August to October, 1945. Nagasaki: Nagasaki Association for Hibakushas Medical Care (NASHIM), 2000.


Oda, Makoto

Oda, Makoto (June 1932 - ) was born in Osaka. He graduated from the University of Tokyo, where he majored in classical Greek philosophy and literature, then attended Harvard University on a Fulbright Scholarship. In 1961 he published "Nande mo mite yaro" ("I'll be everywhere"), a book describing his travels around the world on a shoestring budget, which became the bestseller of the year among Japan's post-war generation. Widely known as the leader of Beheiren (League of Citizens' Movements for Peace in Vietnam) and of other major citizens' movements on anti-war and anti-nuclear issues. His numerous essays and full-length novels reflect his activities both in Japan and abroad. The novel "The Bomb" ("HIROSHIMA") was first published in 1981. His first full-length novel, "Amerika" ("America") was published in 1962.

Translations:

Oda, Makoto. The Bomb. Trans. D. H. Whittaker. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1990.

---, H: A Hiroshima Novel. Trans. D. H. Whittaker. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1995.


Oe, Kenzaburo

Oe, Kenzaburo (January 1935 -) was born in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku. The publication of "Kimyo na shigoto" ("A Strange Job") in 1957, while Oe was still a student in the French literature department of Tokyo University, marked the beginning of his literary career. In 1958 he was awarded the Akutagawa Prize for "The Catch" ("Shiiku"). His first full-length novel "Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids" ("Me mushiri, ko uchi"), published in the same year, also won great acclaim. He received his degree from Tokyo University in 1959, his graduation thesis being on Sartre. Notable among his works are "Warera no jidai" ("Our Time," 1959), "A Personal Matter" ("Kojinteki na taiken," 1964, the Shinchosha Literary Prize), a documentary entitled "Hiroshima Notes" ("Hiroshima Noto," 1964-65), a novel, "Man'en gannen futtoboru" ("The Silent Cry", 1967, the Tanizaki Prize), collection of lectures entitled "Kakujidai no sozoryoku" ("Imagination in the Atomic Age," 1970), a documentary, "Okinawa Noto" ("Okinawa Note," 1970), a novel "Atarashii hito yo mezameyo" ("Rouse up, O Young Men of the New Age," 1983). "A Quiet Life" ("Shizuka na seikatsu," 1990). Oe continues to maintain his position as a front-runner in the contemporary literary scene. He persistently confronts the hellish dimensions of contemporary life with a keen and balanced grasp of personal concerns and social realities. In 1994 Oe was awarded The Nobel Prize for Literature.

Translations:

---, Hiroshima Notes. Trans. Toshi Yonezawa and David L. Swain. Tokyo: YMCA Press, 1981. New York: Marion Boyars, 1995, and 1997. New York: Grove Press, 1996.


Ota, Yoko

Ota, Yoko (November 1906 - December 1963) was born as Fukuda, Hatsuko in Hiroshima. Her parents divorced when she was seven, and she was adopted by the Fukuda family. As a young girl she read Takuboku Ishikawa and Shusei Tokuda, as well as Goethe and Heine. She also read and was influenced by Tolstoi. After graduating from a girls' school, she taught sewing at an elementary school and took various secretarial jobs, moving frequently among Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima. On the invitation of Kan Kikuchi, she came to Tokyo in 1926, where she began to work as a magazine reporter. She started to write serious fiction around 1929. Ota worked her way into the literary scene through her involvement in the activities of several literary magazines. In 1940, gSakura no kunih (gThe Cherry Landh) was awarded a prize by the Asahi newspaper, and received considerable public acclaim. She was exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. Stricken with the fear that she would become a victim of radiation sickness, she worked feverishly to complete gCity of Corpsesh (gShikabane no machih), an account of her experiences in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing. The novel was written in the autumn of 1945, but then was censored and finally published three years later with portions deleted. This was followed by gNingen ranruh (gHuman Tattersh), which was awarded the Women's Literary Prize. gCity of Corpsesh was first published in 1948, and gFirefliesh (gHotaruh) in 1953. gHan ningenh (gHalf humanh), first published in 1954 and awarded Peace Cultural Award, portrays the struggle with mental illness of an author threatened by radiation disease and fears of an impending world war. The four-volume gOta Youko shuuh (gCollected works of Youko Otah) edited by Ineko Sata et al., was published posthumously in 1981.

References:

Lifton, Robert Jay. Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima. New York: Basic Books, 1967.@New York: Random House, 1967. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968. New York: Vintage Books, 1969. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Lippit, Mizuta Noriko, and Kyoko Iriye Selden, eds. Stories by Contemporary Japanese Women Writers. New York: ME Sharpe, 1982.

Oe, Kenzaburo, ed. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.

---, Japanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fiction. An East Gate Book. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1991.

Minear, Richard H. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Treat, John Whittier. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Translations:

---, gFirefliesh Trans. Koichi Nakagawa. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. New York: Grove Press, 1985. pp. 85-111.

---, gResidues of Squalorh Trans. Kyoko Selden. The Atomic Bomb Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Eds. Kyoko Selden, and Mark Selden.@New YorkFM. E. Sharpe, 1989. pp. 55-85.

---, gThe City of Corpsesh Trans. Richard H. Minear Hiroshima: Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. pp. 147-273.

---, hResidues of Squalorh Trans. and ed. Noriko Lippit and Kyoko Selden. Japanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fiction. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1991. pp. 58-83.


Sata, Ineko

Sata, Ineko (September 1904 - October 1998) was born in Nagasaki. After graduating from elementary school, she moved with her family to Tokyo. The family was poor, and Sata worked at various jobs as a young girl. In 1922 her poems were published for the first time in "Shi to jinsei" ("Poetry and life"). When she was 22, she met Tatsuo Hori and Shigeharu Nakano and became a member of the staff of the literary magazine "Roba" ("Donkey"), an important journal in the proletarian literature movement, in which her maiden work,a short story, "Kyarameru kojo kara" ("From the Caramel Factory," 1928) was published. She later participated in the proletarian literature movement, and was arrested and imprisoned many times. With Yuriko Miyamoto, she worked with the women's committee of the Proletarian Authors' Association. After the Second World War, she continued to publish works such as "Onna no yado" ("Woman's Adobe," 1963, The Womens Literature Prize), "Juei" ("Tree Shade," 1970-73, the Noma Hiroshi Prize), which show her sincerity as a revolutionary writer and as a woman. "Juei" traces the impact of the Nagasaki atomic bomb in the minds of two individuals. She was also awarded the Kawabata Yasunari Prize for "Toki ni tatsu" ("Standing in Time," 1975). Her other important works include "Keiryu" ("The Ravine," 1964), "Kino no niji" ("Yesterday's rainbow," essays, 1978), and "Omou-dochi" ("Friends," 1989). "The Colourless Paintings" ("Iro no nai e") was first published in 1961.

References:

Oe, KenzaburO, ed. Atomic Aftermath: Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984. Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985.

Translations:

Sata, Ineko. gThe Colorless Paintings.h Trans. Shiloh Ann Shimura. The Atomic Aftermath; Short Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ed. KenzaburO Oe. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1984.@Fire from the Ashes: Japanese Stories about Hiroshima and Nagasaki London: Readers International, 1985. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985. pp. 113-125

-----gMemory of a Nighth, Trans. Kyoko Selden gJapanese Women Writers: Twentieth Century Short Fictionh M.E. Sharpe, 1989pp. pp. 84-96


Shoda, Shinoe

Shoda, Shinoe ( December 1910 - June 1965) was born in Hiroshima. She graduated from Aki Girls' High School in 1928. In 1947, evading Occupation censorship, she secretly published gSangeh (gPenitenceh), a tanka anthology. She continued to write poems, memoirs, and children's tales until her death from breast cancer. Unfortunately she did not live long enough to see the publication of her second tanka collection, gSarusuberih (gCrape myrtleh), published in 1966. gReikoh along with gChanchako bachanh (gOld woman in chanchako, or a padded sleeveless jacketh), was posthumously published in gDokyumento Nihonjinh (gDocument of the Japaneseh) in 1969. gPikakko-chanh contains seven stories, including gReikoh and g Chanchako bachanh.

References:

Treat, John Whittier. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Vance-Watkins, Lequita, and Mariko Aratani, eds., and trans. White Flash Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. 1995.

Translations:

Shinoe, Shoda. hReikoh Trans. Kyoko Selden. The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Eds. Kyoko Selden, and Mark Selden. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1989. pp. 234-242.

---, hAfter Effecth The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. 44. Rev. ed. 1967. 48. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha. 1971. 90. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan. 1975. 53. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan. 1979. p. 53.

---, hFeeling Impatienth The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. p. 54. Rev. ed. 1967. p. 68. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha. 1971. p. 92. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan. 1975. p. 65. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan. 1979. p. 65.


Toge, Sankichi

Toge, Sankichi (February 1917- March 1953) was born Mitsuyoshi Toge in Osaka as the youngest son of Ki'ichi Toge, a successful manufacturer of bricks. From the start Toge was a sickly child, suffering from asthma and periodic vomiting. He graduated from Hiroshima Prefecture's school of commerce in 1935, and started working for the Hiroshima Gas Company. In 1938 Toge was diagnosed, wrongly, as having tuberculosis. Believing himself to have only a few years to live, he spent most of his time an invalid. In 1948 Toge learned that the diagnosis was wrong. He had bronchiectasis, an enlargement of the bronchial tube. He started composing poems in the second year of middle school. Early influences included Tolstoy, Heine, Toson Shimzaki, and Haruo Sato. In 1938 he read his first proletarian literature. In December 1942, he was baptized into the Catholic Church. By 1945 he composed three thousand tanka and even more haiku. They were mostly lyric poems. Twenty-four year old Toge was in Hiroshima when the A-bomb was dropped on the city. By 1951 he was writing poetry startlingly different from his earlier efforts. In 1949 Toge joined the Japanese Communist Party. His first collection of the atomic bomb works, "Poems of the Atomic Bomb" ("Genbaku shishu") was published in 1951. Toge died at the age of thirty-six in the Operating Room in Hiroshima. His first hand experience of the bomb, his passion for peace and his realistic insight into the event made him the leading poet in Hiroshima.

References:

Minear, Richard H. Through Japanese Eyes. A Cite Book, New York: Center for International Training and Education, 1994.

Minear, Richard H. Hiroshima: Three Witnesses.Prinston: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Treat, John W. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Translations:

Toge, Sankichi, gGive Back The People.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1967. p. 24. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 178. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 6. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 8.

---, gAugust Sixth.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. pp. 6-8. Rev. Ed. 1967. pp. 10-12. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. pp. 180. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 8. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 8.

---, gMorning.h Hiroshima Sings: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima: YMCA Book Center, 1961. p. 13. The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Hiroshima, n.p. 1964. pp. 51-58. Rev. Ed. 1967. pp. 70-72. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 240. Hiroshima: Shunyosha Shuppan, 1975. p. 66. Hiroshima: Satsuki Shuppan, 1979. p. 66.

---, gAt a first-aid post.h Trans. James Kirkup and Fumiko Miura. Poetry Nippon 11 (1970): pp. 2-3.

---, gAt the First-aid Stations.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 200.

---, gDeathh The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. pp. 184.

---, gThe Blazeh The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 192.

---, gBlindnessh The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 196.

---, gEyes.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 204.

---, gNotes in the Warehouse.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 208.

---, gThe Little Child.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 220.

---, gA Grave-Post.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 226.

---, gWe Call to You.h The Songs of Hiroshima: An Anthology. Ed. and Trans. Miyao Ohara. Tokyo: Taihei Shuppan-sha, 1971. p. 244.

---, gAugust Six.h Trans. Akiko Takemoto. Poetry Nippon 19 (1972): pp. 3-4.

---, gThe Eye.h Trans. Akiko Takemoto. Poetry Nippon 19 (1972): pp. 5-6.

---, g Hiroshima 1945 (1). g Trans. Tsuneo Masaki. The Reeds 13. Faculty of the English Department, Osaka University of Foreign Studies (1972): pp. 31-44.

---, Hiroshima Poems. Trans. Rob Jackaman, Dennis Logan and Tsutomu Shioda. Tokyo: Sanyusha Shuppan, 1977.@

---, gAt a first-aid post.h Trans. James Kirkup. Modern Japanese Poetry. St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press, 1978. p. 152.

---, gTo Missch Trans. James Kirkup. Modern Japanese Poetry.@St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press,1978. pp. 154-155.

---, gThe night.h Trans. James Kirkup. Modern Japanese Poetry. St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press,1978. pp. 156-157.

---, gThe vision.h Trans. James Kirkup. Modern Japanese Poetry. St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press,1978. pp. 158-160.

---, gAt a First Aid Post,hgTo Miss...,hgThe Night,h gThe Vision.hTrans. James Kirkup. No More Hiroshimas: Poems and Translations. Kyoto: n. p. 1982.

---, 25 poems including gPrelude,handgAugust 6.hTrans. Richard Minear. Hiroshima. Three Witnesses. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1990.

---,gAugust 6h (p.144-145), gAt the Makeshift Aid Stationh (pp. 145-146) Trans. Richard Minear. Through Japanese Eyes. New York: Center for International Training and Education, 1994. pp. 144-146

---, gGive Me Back My Father.h Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. p. 172.

---,gPicture Book.h Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. 1995. pp. 174-175.

---,gThe Road Home from Christmas.h Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. 1995. pp. 175-176.

---,gThe Scar.h Trans. John Whittier Treat. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. 1995. pp. 184-185.

---,hThe Appealh (pp.177-178), gAugust 6h,(p. 178) gAugust 6, 1950h ( pp. 179-180), gEyesh (pp. 181- 182), gThe Shadowh (pp. 186-187), gDawnh (p. 188) Trans. Richard Minear. [In] Treat, John W. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999.

---,gAt the Makeshift Aid Station.h Trans. Richard H. Minear, Ed. John Bradley. Atomic Ghosts: Poets Respond to the Nuclear Age. Minneapolis, MN: Coffee House Press, 1995. pp. 15-16

---,g The Shadow.h Trans. R. H. Minear, Ed. John Bradley. Atomic Ghosts: Poets Respond to the Nuclear Age. Minneapolis, MN: Coffee House Press, 1995. pp. 22-23

---, gAugust 6, 1950.h Trans. R. H. Minear, Ed. John Bradley. Atomic Ghosts: Poets Respond to the Nuclear Age. Minneapolis, MN: Coffee House Press, 1995. pp. 28-30


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