1st presentation 9:50-11:00】
Masako Tanaka (Sophia University)
Inclusive Aid through Partnerships with Identity-Based Associations: A Case Study of Evolutional Process of a Trafficking Survivors Organization in Nepal
Chairperson: Kenichi Tachibana (Ritsumeikan University)

This paper aims at presenting the process and conditions for ‘inclusive aid’ with a special focus on Identity-Based Associations (IBAs) established by socially excluded groups. This article defines ‘inclusive aid’ as aids that put IBAs as the core implementing partners of development programs. It enables IBAs to be recognized as Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and to restore human rights through changing relationships among IBAs, International NGOs (INGOs) and Local NGOs (LNGOs). As a concrete example, the paper picks up Shakti Samuha (SS) in Nepal, the first IBA established by trafficking survivors in the world.
The first chapter critically reviews the current tendency of development aid that excludes IBAs. In the second chapter, it examines preceding studies on partnerships and ‘Rights-Based Approach’. A set of four stages for inclusive aid is presented as an analytical framework of this study. They are 1) facilitating formation of IBAs and providing safe space for IBA members, 2) developing Self-Help Organizations to IBAs, 3) changing relations between IBA members and non-members, and 4) designing multilateral partnerships with various actors.
The third chapter explains socio-cultural contexts of Nepal as the background of this study and also presents on-going phenomena of emerging IBAs. In Chapter four, the existing studies on development partnerships in Nepal are reviewed followed by an introduction of partnership guidelines prepared by Association of INGOs in Nepal and data analysis on partnerships between International NGOs and IBAs.
In Chapter five, historical background of human trafficking in Nepal is presented. Evolutional development process of SS and its unique activities are analyzed in Chapter six and seven.
The eighth chapter examined the set of four stages of inclusive aid and modified it as follows. First, INGOs/LNGOs need to facilitate formation of IBAs. Second, INGOs/LNGOs should support capacity building of IBAs in order to develop them from Self-Help Organizations to IBAs which provide support beyond their memberships. Third, INGOs/LNGOs and IBAs can learn each other through issue-based networks. Fourth, all these actors should develop their partnerships not bilaterally but multilaterally so that holistic and evolutional process of IBAs is ensured. Fifth, it is essential to change relations between IBAs’ members and non-members who do not share same social stigma. Regarding the conditions for inclusive aid, INGOs/LNGOs should comply the partnership guidelines while IBAs need to work with the non-members. Finally, the article summarizes the entire discussion throughout this study and mentions its scope and limitations.

【2nd presentation 11:10-12:20
Tatsuro Fujikura (Kyoto University)
“Violence and Memory in Post-conflict Nepal: Preliminary Notes”
Chairperson: Mrigendra Bahadur Karki (Tribhuvan University)

A decade long armed conflict in Nepal (1996-2006) involved many killings, torture, rape, and 'disappearances'.  As Nepal awaits drafting of a new constitution, the issue of transitional justice is being debated. The formation of Truth and Reconciliation Committee has been promised since the end of the conflict, but it has not materialized even after 8 years. Instead, many observers point to the politics of impunity and persistent and growing ties between politics and crime in this supposedly post-conflict ear. Conversely, the mainstream political discourse, especially since the second constituency assembly elections, is exhibiting strong preference to forget about the traumatic violence and crimes during the conflict and ‘move forward’ toward stability and economic growth. Yet, for those who were tortured, and for those whose husbands and sons have been ‘disappeared’, the violence is still present, in their bodily senses, and as the disappeared regularly returns with striking sense of reality in the dreams of their mothers and wives. This is preliminary attempt to consider the current, extended transitional period in Nepal and politics of impunity, seeing them as enfolding politics of memory and forgetting. The paper seeks to do so by surveying current literature and reports on the state of transitional justice, as well as some interviews and case studies involving torture victims and family members of the disappeared.

【3rd presentation 13:50-15:00
Mrigendra Bahadur Karki (Tribhuvan University)
“Rajniti in the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal: Structural Homophily and II Constituent Assembly Election”
Chairperson: MAHARJAN Keshav Lall (Hiroshima University)

This paper attempts to differentiate two notions i) rajniti & ii) politics. Various Nepali-English dictionaries are translating these two notions each other as synonyms, however, Nepali political leaders are employing the political practices reflecting upon an image from "territorial knowledge and practice system" rather than transforming themselves into a leader as imaged in the democracy of the Western world. Leaders are copying the role model of Nepali "kings" in their "theory of life process". Employing the concept of structural homophily, political leaders' decisions are analyzed in the II Constituent Assembly (CA) candidate nomination and their election (elected members in the CA through the proportional representation (PR) system). I argue, first, leaders are executing the role of "royal conduct or polity" in the federal democratic republic of Nepal not as a party leader,  thus, second, the mixed member proportional system (first-past-the-post and PR) is under consideration.

4th presentation 15:10-16:20
Ryukichi Ishida(Advisor, Dept. of Orthopaedics Ueda-Shimotanabe
Hospital, Japan/Researcher, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies (CNAS) Tribhuvan University, Nepal)
“Integrative Community Health Care in Thabang/Rolpa,
beyond Health Inequities in Nepal”
Chairperson: MAHARJAN Keshav Lall (Hiroshima University)

Following the memory of Dr. Noboru Iwamura in 46 years old medical student age, who accompanied me to his “Tb Caravan” around Tansen/Palpa, in 2009 I launched “Primary Trauma Care Research Caravan”, walking from Jumla to Baglung through hilly region of mid-western Nepal. After this bird-eye view research, I selected Thawang as a base camp for future rural health research, focusing on the integrative community health care based on the empowerment of local traditional healers. On 2013, building of Community Health Center/”Rural Health Research Institute” was completed and pilot action research is starting.
Looking back these 46 years, most prominent change was ”Development of Health Inequities” between rural(poor) and capital(rich). How can we overcome this dark side of modernization/globalization?

5th presentation 16:40-17:50
Taeko Uesugi (Senshu University)
“Being Patriotic Agents for Deterritorialization of a Nation-State: An Analysis of the NRNA’s (Non-Resident Nepali Association’s) campaign”
Chairperson: Kazuyuki Watanabe (Ritsumeikan University)

I examine the idea and practice of the campaign carried on by the Non-Resident Nepali Association (NRNA), and analyze its characteristics and significance for Nepalese society in the process of nation building and deterritorialization.

6th presentation 17:50-19:00
Morimoto Izumi (Meiji Gakuin University)
“Preliminary notes on Social and Spatial Changes in Cities A Case of Historical Geography of Thamel, Kathmandu”
Chairperson: Tatsuro Fujikura (Kyoto University)

Thamel has been created as a tourist space since the end of 1960s and expanded into one of the most famous places in Nepal for tourists. In 1960s, there were a couple of hotels and restaurants in Thamel, now there are a lot of hotels, agents, restaurants and shops with various languages from Nepali to Hebrew. When you would walk on the streets in Thamel, you might become confused where you were. A variety of ethnic or global cuisines, ‘fancy’ clothes, and Nepalese, or sometimes Tibetan, ‘antique’ souvenirs labeled in English are available. On the other hand, services provided in Thamel have become diversified, because middle class people have started to visit for taking enjoyment in consuming cultures, same as tourists. This paper attempts to preliminarily consider these changes observed in Thamel as the social and spatial changes in Kathmandu in the process of development of the world-systems.

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