1st presentation 9:50-11:00】
Masako Tanaka (Sophia University)
Inclusive Aid through Partnerships with Identity-Based Associations: A Case Study of Evolutional Process of a Trafficking Survivors Organization in Nepal
Chairperson: Kenichi Tachibana (Ritsumeikan University)

<Abstract >
This paper aims at presenting the process and conditions for ‘inclusive aid’ with a special focus on Identity-Based Associations (IBAs) established by socially excluded groups. This article defines ‘inclusive aid’ as aids that put IBAs as the core implementing partners of development programs. It enables IBAs to be recognized as Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and to restore human rights through changing relationships among IBAs, International NGOs (INGOs) and Local NGOs (LNGOs). As a concrete example, the paper picks up Shakti Samuha (SS) in Nepal, the first IBA established by trafficking survivors in the world.
The first chapter critically reviews the current tendency of development aid that excludes IBAs. In the second chapter, it examines preceding studies on partnerships and ‘Rights-Based Approach’. A set of four stages for inclusive aid is presented as an analytical framework of this study. They are 1) facilitating formation of IBAs and providing safe space for IBA members, 2) developing Self-Help Organizations to IBAs, 3) changing relations between IBA members and non-members, and 4) designing multilateral partnerships with various actors.
The third chapter explains socio-cultural contexts of Nepal as the background of this study and also presents on-going phenomena of emerging IBAs. In Chapter four, the existing studies on development partnerships in Nepal are reviewed followed by an introduction of partnership guidelines prepared by Association of INGOs in Nepal and data analysis on partnerships between International NGOs and IBAs.
In Chapter five, historical background of human trafficking in Nepal is presented. Evolutional development process of SS and its unique activities are analyzed in Chapter six and seven.
The eighth chapter examined the set of four stages of inclusive aid and modified it as follows. First, INGOs/LNGOs need to facilitate formation of IBAs. Second, INGOs/LNGOs should support capacity building of IBAs in order to develop them from Self-Help Organizations to IBAs which provide support beyond their memberships. Third, INGOs/LNGOs and IBAs can learn each other through issue-based networks. Fourth, all these actors should develop their partnerships not bilaterally but multilaterally so that holistic and evolutional process of IBAs is ensured. Fifth, it is essential to change relations between IBAs’ members and non-members who do not share same social stigma. Regarding the conditions for inclusive aid, INGOs/LNGOs should comply the partnership guidelines while IBAs need to work with the non-members. Finally, the article summarizes the entire discussion throughout this study and mentions its scope and limitations.