The Memory of August 6th through Literature

A-bomb Literature Exhibition 〜 Five Writers of Hiroshima

 

Foreword

 

 Today we enter the first summer of the 21st century. More than half a century has already passed since the A-bomb was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945, for the first time in history. During this time, sorrow, anger and grief have produced many “A-bomb writers.”

 This exhibition features five writers, Hara Tamiki, Ota Yoko, Toge Sankichi, Shoda Shinoe, and Kurihara Sadako who portrayed the tragedy of war, the misery of the A-bomb, and its inhumanity in novels, poems, tanka and other genres based on their own A-bomb experiences and observations.

  A-bomb survivors grow older day by day. It is Hiroshima's mission to convey the tragedy, misery and inhumanity of war and the A-bomb to the young generations of the world for the establishment of world peace. For that purpose we are requesting the establishment of “The Hiroshima Archives of Literature.”

 Prior to the decision about permanent use of the A-bombed building of the Japan Bank Hiroshima Branch, we got permission from Hiroshima City to have an exhibition. Though they are only a part of a vast body of Hiroshima's artistic works, here we exhibit five writers: their literature, their photographs, and other materials. These Hiroshima artists produced these creations at the cost of shortening their lives.

 We shall be happy if you receive a message from them and have a chance to think about the “ Hiroshima inheritance.”

The Citizens' group for the Hiroshima Archives of Literature

Mizushima Hiromasa, Representative

July 21, 2001


Poster of the Exhibition(PDFfile)

 

Lists of the Exhibition

 

Toge, Sankichi

No.

Item

Note

1

Poem "Song of Anger"

Read during the strike against the dismissal of workers in the Hiroshima Nihon Seiko factory, the poem was welcomed with cheers by the workers.

2

Manuscript "August 6th"

Appeared in "Peace Front", a Communist party organ of the district committee, and was later included in "Genbaku Shishu or the Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems."

3

Postcards From Tsuboi Shigeharu to Toge Sankichi

1. "Genbaku Shishu or the Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems." should be published by August 6th temporarily even in mimeograph….July 24th , 1951.

2. A letter of thanks at the publication of "Genbaku Shishu or the Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems."(Aoki-Bunko)

4

Letter “To My Wife, Kazuko”

A letter to Kazuko when they got married. (December, 1947)

5

Diary with pictures of his school(Hiroshima Commercial School) trip

1934. Toge Sankichi left a lot of letters and postcards with pictures. The “small”elder sister in it is his next oldest sister Chieko.

6

Picture diary to Kazuko in the sanatorium

   

7

Notes 'Genbaku Shisho or the Selection of the Atomic-bomb Poems'

Notes written for the publication of "Genbaku Shishu or the Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems."

8

Poem ‘Life’

This seems to be an archetype of the preface of “Genbaku Shishu”, “Give me back my father, Give me back my mother….”

9

Poem ‘Picture Book’

A work written before “Genbaku Shishu.” The notes of ‘Genbaku Shisho’ shows that this poem was intended to be included in “Genbaku Shishu.”

10

Manuscript "August 6th"

Appeared in "Peace Front", a Communist party organ of the district committee, and was later included in "Genbaku Shishu or the Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems."

11

Manuscript "August 6th, 1950"

While all assemblies were banned, a peace meeting was carried out in front of Fukuya Department Store and leaflets advocating peace and decrying war were distributed. Contained in "The Collection of the Atomic-bomb Poems."

12

Poem manuscript A ‘Composition’

This is included in “Genbaku Shishu” titled ‘炎の季節‘

13

Poem manuscript B ‘Death’

The same title poem is included in “Genbaku Shishu.” But the expressions are quite different.

14

Poem manuscript C ‘The temporary hospital for the injured’

Under the title ‘The Record of a Storehouse’ in “Genbaku Shishu.”

15

Poem manuscript D ‘Bohyo or Burial Marker’

Same title poem in “Genbaku Shishu.” He seems to have reworked this poem again and again.

16

Cover Pictures of “Genbaku Shishu.” (painted by Maruki Toshi)

The cover picture for “Genbaku Shishu.”

17

The Image of Toge Sankichi (painted by Maruki Toshi)

In 1950 the ‘Genbaku no Zu or the Picture of A-bombing’ exhibition by Maruki Iri and Toshi was held for the first time in Hiroshima. This image was painted at that time.

27

A part of ‘How’s the steel….’ hanging out from the bed

A paragraph of ‘How was the steel forged?’ by オフトロスキー   

18

Death Mask

1953年(昭28)3月10日、肺葉切除手術途中手術台にて死亡(36歳)。三吉の遺品のメモには、ルイ・アラゴンの詩の一節「紙にそよぐ風のように生きて燃えつくした炎のように死ぬ」が記されていた。

19

Death Mask Picture

painted by Maruki Iri and Toshi

20

Telegram reporting of Toge’s death

Addressed to his elder sister, Chieko

21

峠三吉の棺をくるんだ赤旗(レプリカ)

   

22

Photograph: Sankichi, Six months old

1917

23

Photograph: All family members

Sankich is in his mother’s arms

24

Photograph: All children (Sankichi, two years old)

From the left, Sankichi, Tadashi, Chieko, Kazuo and Yoshiko

25

Photograph: Fourth grade of Prefectual Commrcial School

Sankichi, 16 years old  

26

写真・国立広島療養所「高原詩の会」の仲間と

   

28

Photograph: At an informal gathering for discussion after ‘Genbaku no Zu or the Picture of A-bombing’Exhibition.

With Maruki Iri and Toshi,and Tuboi Shigeharu(1950)

29

Photograph: The day when he entered hospital to have an operation. (at Hiroshima Station)

We can see Shoda Shinoe, Yamashiro Tomoyo、Katsuhara Sumio and so on. February 15th, 1953.

 

Shoda, Shinoe

No.

Item

Note

1

"Ah (Alas!) Atomic bomb!” (August 1946)

Shoda Shinoe visited Sugiura翠子in Karuizawa, her tanka teacher, with her brother Shoda Seiichi. Around May, 1946, the year after the A-bombing, she intended to show her 39 poems based on the A-bombing experience to Sugiura. The teacher praised them in the highest terms and put them in the number 7 issue of "Fushidori or Phoenix", printed in mimeographed form in August of that year. 120 copies were published. Those poems were the origin of "Sange, or Offering Flowers."

2

"Sange, or Offering Flowers" (December, 1947)

After working the 39 poems, Shinoe added new ones to total a hundred poems and published 100 copies of them privately, which she distributed to her relatives, friends, and acquaintances only. Shinoe said in " Miminari,or Ringing Ears"(published by Heibonsha) she published “Sange” secretly, preparing for the worst, capital punishment. But, it did not come.

3

"Entering the Buddhist priesthood" (February, 1954)

Shinoe's father as well as Shinoe was very devout. He resolved to enter the Buddhist priesthood after a long deliberation. His Buddhist name was Ruiju.

4

" A Guest Called One Day" ( Around 1952 〜1956?)

To earn her living, she opened a Japanese-style hotel, Kahanso, where some of the more cultured persons in Hiroshima stayed.

5

"Red Tomatoes"

This is her childhood friend's story. On that very morning, her son wanted to have tomatoes before he left home, but she told him to have them after he came back. Her son never returned. His mother placed tomatoes on the alter as an offering, lamenting frantically. This story was included in the "Pikakko chan" as a children's story.

6

" For fear of dying" (1964)

Shinoe had wanted to write novels and plays, too. She seemed to have plans to start writing about familiar themes and go on to long novels eventually.

7

Letters "From Shoda Shinoe to Kurihara Sadako " (September, 1964)

Written the year before Shinoe's death. Her breast cancer had reached an advanced stage. She told Kurihara that she was going into the hospital. Both Shinoe and Kurihara are members of "Mothers' Movement Against Nuclear Weapons." They had a very close friendship.

8

Postcards "From Shoda Shinoe to Kurihara Sadako"

1. As of the 25th of August, 1962. Notifying her of the visit of Dr. Robert J.Lifton, an American psychiatrist, the author of 死の内の生命.

2. As of the 1st of February, 1963. Worrying about Sadako's condition. At that time Shinoe believed that she herself was in good health.

3. As of the 13th of September, 1963. Not having met with Sadako. Feeling very meaningful(precious) to write to one of one hundred million Japanese. In the same month, at Kyushu University Hospital, she was pronounced breast cancer.

9

Contribution to青史 (August,1960)

 青史 is a tanka magazine by people who study tanka literature. The editor of the compilation was Fukagawa Munetoshi. On the right white cover No.8, August, 1960. On the left green cover No.133, August, 1971

10

“The diary hopefully be burned” (1963)

Shinoe was advised to have an operation for breast cancer. She was informed that she would only live until next spring. She reported it to her friend Tsukio Sugako. Tsukio recommended her to have vaccine treatment at Hasumi in Tokyo. She prepared Shinoe’s airplane ticket and accommodation in Tokyo. This is a poem diary from October 1st to December 18th, the day of her return to Hiroshima. Thukio Sugako visited the historian, Nakamura Takaya who told her about the daily prayer to the Buddha by Tikugawa Ieyasu. Shinoe was so impressed with the story that she decided to write a daily prayer for the remembrance of 300,000 A-bomb victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tsukio prepared everything for her, such as paper of 高野切, brush, Indian ink and so on.

11

“Diary of the year of her death” (1965)

January and February, when NHK was collecting materials on Shinoe. She appeared on the television program, ‘ Ringing Ears―The story of an A-bomb survivor’ which is an episode in the series ‘One Life.’She continued writing a daily prayer and completed it for 300,000 victims on January 26th. She kept writing it after the completion of 300,000 prayers.

12

"Women's Newspaper" (July 1st, 1965)

Shinoe died on June 15th. 54 years old. An eulogy by Kurihara Sadako. A Poem, "A Requiem," by Ohara三八雄.

20

" Big Bones must be teachers.’”

Inscribed on "Monument for National School Teachers and Pupils , Victims of A-bombing" located to the southwest of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in the green belt on the street of Heiwa Odori. The word “Big” is inscribed on the monument.

14

" Tsukio Sugako and "三十万名号"

Tsukio Sugako who supported Shinoe not only materially but emotionally erected a monument to the memory of "三十万名号" and published "Shoda Shinoe and 三十万名号"

15

A portrait of Shoda Shinoe (by Shikoku Goro)

Painted for the opening of " Exhibition of Materials of Shoda Shinoe'sLiterature "(July 25th, 〜August 8th, 1991,At Hiroshima Municipal Central Library)

16

写真 本人肖像

17

A portrait of Shinoe

As a student in Aki Women's High School (Showa 3 〜4)

18

A portrait of Shinoe

Shinoe's first son 高本槇一郎 is on the right. Her cousin's son Kokubo Mitsuru is on the left.

19

A portrait of Shinoe

 

Yamasumi, son of Shinoe's tanka teacher, Yamasumi Mamoru, who was a leader of tanka group, "Bansho, or An Evening Bell. "At the time of his departure to battle. At Ushitawaseda Shrine.

20

"三十万名号( Prayer for Three hundred thousand A-bomb Victims)"

15 volumes of them were contributed to Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. 2 of them went Nagasaki, 10 to Hinomiya in Kumamoto. Tsukio Sugako and Nakamura Takaya have one each.  The remaining one was missing while Shinoe was still alive.

 

 

Kurihara, Sadako

No.

Item

Note

1

Manuscript of Remember the August

A piece of writing which connected the Vietnam War and Hiroshima.

2

Manuscript of The River

A part of the introduction 1 of the full-length composed poem The River.

3

Fiction-writing notebook (1935-1940)

Written during the war. After the war, this book was self-issued and censored by GHQ. It contains the matrix of The Black Egg.

3

Fiction-writing notebook (1945〜1951)

The seal on this book shows it was privately published in her home, where the magazine Liberte was also published.

4

I Witnessed Hiroshima

The first edition of poetry for the atomic bomb. This book was circulated in The Fifth Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs in 1955.

5

Chugoku Bunka

The general literary magazine which was published from the devastation in 1946. The passionate work of Mr. and Mrs. Kurihara inspired other cultural figures in Hiroshima. 18 issues were published, 1946 to July 1948. The main authors were Hosoda Tamiki, Hata Koichi, Wakasugi Kei, Yamamoto Yasuo and etc. Hamamoto Takeichi and Shikoku Goro took charge of the book cover and illustrations.

6

The first issue of Liberte, the title changed from Chugoku Bunka (November, 1948)

  

7

The River in Hiroshima

She started an organization of "Mothers Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb" with Moritake Shigeko, Yamaguchi Yuko and Shoda Shinoe in 1960. 18 issues of their bulletin magazine, The River in Hiroshima, were published from June, 1961 to July, 1974.

8

The Hiroshima Life Newspaper

This paper was published with her husband, Tadaichi, quarterly from 1951.

9

最新の詩(2000/7/29)

9

最新の短歌(2000/12月)

  

10

『黒い卵』(初版本)

  

11

Photograph: Kurihara at work

around 1977

12

Photograph: In her study room

around 1980  

13

Photograph: The Asian Literary Conference, Hiroshima

July, 1983 

16

Photograph: The evaluation meeting after The Asian Literary Conference, Hiroshima

August, 1983. With members of the Hiroshima Executive Committee.

14

Photograph: With Moritaki Ichiro and Monikorve from Sweden

July, 1983  

15

Photograph: With Maruki Toshi, Doi Takako and Sekino Ayako

October 1, 1985. In Tokyo. The Women's International Symposium on Anti-nuclear, Disarmament and Nuclear-free Zone.

17

Photograph: With books of her companions

  

18

Photograph: Kurihara Tadaichi and Sadako

1967  

19

A poster for The International Conference of Anti-nuclear Literature in Koln, German in 1982.

 

Kurihara Sadako, Koura Chihoko and Koumura Fujihiko from Hiroshima, joined the conference.

 

Hara, Tamiki

No.

Item

Note

1

Letter: From Tamiki to Nagai Zenjiro

A detailed account of August 6th

As of the 12th of August 1945. A complement to ‘ Notes at the time of the A-bomb.’ Zenjiro is Tamiki’s brother-in-law whose pen name is Sasaki Kiichi.

2

Postcard: From Ara Masato to Tamiki

 

“I’m writing about Picasso focusing on‘inherent

authority’”

As of the 22nd of December 1946. An answer to the request for a contribution from the journal, ‘ Mita Bungaku.’

3

Postcard: From Endo Shusaku to Tamiki

 

“Excuse me for writing to you without our having been introduced.”

As of the 6th of January 1948. A postcard showing the relationship between the two writers.

4

Postcard: From Kumahira Takeji to Tamiki

“I was glad to see your brother and know you had survived” As of the 5th of November 1945. An answer to Tamiki’s letter inquiring how Takeji and their friends are getting along after the A-bomb. Takeji is Tamiki’s close friend since junior high school under the old system of education.

5

Postcard: From Sueda Nobuo to Tamiki

“Excuse the postcard. I read your letter.”

As of the 21st of February 1946. Nobuo’s pen name is 長光太. They were fellow members of poetry group in the Hiroshima First Level Boys’ Junior High School under the old system of education. After the war he encouraged Tamiki to go up to Tokyo.

6

Postcard: From Maruoka Akira to Tamiki

“I read Summer Flower. Seems a bit dangerous, I’m afraid.”As of the 29th of July 1946. Akira is a president of Nogakusyorin, which published the first edition of Summer Flower. One of the supporters of Tamiki after the war. Correspondence to Tamiki bore a censor’s stamp on the envelope.

7

Letter: From Endo Shusaku to Tamiki

‘A letter to apologize for his disgraceful behavior after too much drink and a written explanation’ Perhaps intentionally, the letter and the written explanation bear different dates.

8

Manuscript: Essay "Death, Love and Solitude"

Two sheets of manuscript paper containing 400 characters. “I survived the bomb. Since then something has drained both me and my literature.

9

Translation of Gulliver’s Travels

A Dwarf Country and A Horse Country, Fuuinumu. He seemed to have translated Gulliver’s Travels because he wanted to write Fuuinumu.

10

Manuscript: Novel "Forever Green"

Thirty-seven sheets of manuscript paper. The A-bomb Scene, a composed poem in katakana, contains at the end a poem in hiragana entitled Forever Green.

11

Manuscript: Poem "Morning Darkness"

  

12

Endo Shusaku’s manuscript ‘The Works of Hara Tamiki’

Six sheets of Kamakurabunko manuscript paper. The date of writing is unknown. “The lonely light that a solitary person turns on but is never extinguished….”

13

A part of ten sheets of a draft

Unfinished, and not found in the complete works of青土社edition. Unusual manuscript that shows great pains in Tamiki’s writing.

14

Two farewell notes

A note addressed to Nagai Sumiko, mother of his deceased wife Sadae.

A note addressed to Sasaki Kiichi, brother-in-law. 

15

A draft of his farewell note

Probably addressed to Maruoka Akira. Tamiki left seventeen farewell notes, all written in beautifully clear characters reflecting his composed state of mind. 

16

Photograph: Hara Tamiki giving a lecture at the Japan Pen Club Hiroshima Conference

At Kamiya-cho Gas Bldg, on the 15th of April, 1950 

17

Photograph: Tamiki and Sadae on their honeymoon

Aaround 1935  

18

Photograph: With Kumahira Takeji, close friend

Tthe early years of Showa, around the time of Tamiki's entrance to Keio University

19

Photograph: Hara family at the second anniversary of his mother’s death

Summer in 1939, Tamiki at the far left

20

Photograph: The unveiling of an ‘epitaph’ monument

The stone wall of Hiroshima Castle on the 15th of November, 1951. Sato Haruo(center) came, too.

21

Photograph: The thirty-second anniversary of Tamiki’s death, “Kagenki” held for the first time in Hiroshima.

The 13th of March, 1983. Endo Shusaku, Sasaki Kiichi, Fujishima Unai, Okubo Fusao and others attended.

 

 

Ota, Yoko

No.

Item

Note

1

Manuscript “The City of Corp”

The beginning of the first chapter. First appeared in November, 1948. Published by Chuo-Koron-Sha. Deleted some parts to avoid censorship by U.S. Forces.

2

Manuscript “Wetlands”

The beginning of 102 sheets of the manuscript. First appeared in October, 1958 issue of Gunzo. The story of the man who died from overexposure to residual radiation.

3

Manuscript ”Winter”

A part of 39 sheets of the manuscript. First appeared on October, 1978 issue of Shin-Nihon-Bungaku or New Literature of Japan. The description of the city fallen into ruins after the A-bombing.

5

書籍 『暁は美しく』(随筆集)1943(昭和18)年、赤塚書房

 

6

書籍 『屍の街』1948(昭和23)年、中央公論社

 

7

書籍 『屍の街』1950(昭和25)年、冬芽書房

 

8

書籍 『屍の街』1953(昭和28)年、河出書房(「市民文庫」)「解説」佐々木基一

 

9

書籍 『人間襤褸』1951(昭和26)年、河出書房

 

10

書籍 『夕凪の街と人と』1955(昭和30)年

 

11

書籍 『大田洋子集』全四巻 1982(昭和57)年、三一書房

 

12

研究書籍 江刺昭子『草饐―評伝大田洋子』1971(昭和46)年 涛書房

 

13

Photograph: The latter half of her forties

 

14

Photograph: With the members of the Japan Pen Club in the course of looking for the building site of Hara Tamiki’s monument. “Center”

March, 1951 

15

Photograph: Kirigushi Supplementary School(the present Edajima-cho Kirigushi Elementary School)

In her sewing teacher days. She was painting in oils.

16

Photograph:At the age of 20 years old

She worked for Hiroshima Prefectural Office as a typist. (On the right)