Report on 2019 HINDAS 4th Regular Seminar
2019 HINDAS 4th Regular Seminar
The 124th Study Session of the "Development and Cultural Change Forum"
Date: 13:30－16:50, Sunday, November 10th, 2019
Venue: Large Conference room, 1F, Faculty of Letters, Hiroshima University
Maharjan, Keshav Lall（Hiroshima University, Japan）：
“Understanding of Climate Resilient Agriculture and objective of this research:
Towards comparative analysis of Japan and India”
Over the last decades there has been increasing pressure on the food production systems to produce more food and feed for rising population and livestock. Despite significant strides that have been achieved on hunger eradication, malnutrition is still rampant in developing countries. Estimates have shown that two billion people will be added to the world population by 2050, most of them will be in Asia with South Asia (India) taking the bulk share. To make the matters worse, climate change effects such as extreme weather events add further risk to food production. These facts necessitate that food production be intensified. However, the past agricultural intensification to increase productivity has been mainly achieved through using higher amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides among other inputs. This has come at a significant environmental costs; land degradation, water scarcity, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and health hazards for farmers. CSA technologies have been advocated to achieve three objectives; sustainable increasing of food production, adaptations to climate change and mitigation of GHG emission. Broadly, CSA focuses on developing resilient food production systems that lead to food and income security under progressive climate change and variability.
Japan and India need to work together to realize location specific CSA, through mutual learning and contribute to climate resilient agriculture through mitigation and adaptation, and thus achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Japan and India though have significant differences over their economies, technology adoption and institutional capacities, share some common traits in terms of agro-ecological diversity, and vulnerability to climate change. Japanese experience in CSA; i.e., paddy farming offers huge opportunities for India to learn in terms of technology and institutional mechanisms.
Low cost adaption strategies by Indian farmers also offer learning opportunities for Japan. So this research aims at identifying the mutual learning opportunities and further collaboration and capacity building for the benefit of mankind and the future earth.
The overall objective of this study is to understand the prioritization of farmers regarding adoption of Climate smart agriculture (CSA) options/practices and to assess the impact of such adoption on household’s economic wellbeing in India and Japan. It will also examine the Government NGO’s role in promoting CSA adoption.
This study will be undertaken in the states of Odisha in India and in Saitama, Gunma and Niigata prefectures in Japan.
「日本における気候変動対応型農業の推進」 “Climate Resilient Agriculture in Japan”
本発表では、2019年度から2年間実施する日本学術振興会二国間交流事業のインドとの共同研究における「気候弾力性のある農業に関する研究-日印における農法及び農家の対応の分析を中心に」の概要を紹介するとともに、日本側の研究として、日本における気候弾力性のある農業について、主に政策的な観点から整理した。地球規模では、農林水産業は気候変動の影響を強く受けるとともに、温室効果ガス排出の約1/4を占める排出源でもある。このため、国連食糧農業機関（FAO）が主導し、生産性の向上、気候変動への適応、気候変動の緩和に一体的に取り組むClimate Smart Agriculture（CSA）が、インドをはじめ各国に導入されているが、日本ではあまり知られていない。日本では、これに代わって、「環境保全型農農業」が気候変動対策だけでなく生物多様性保全との関連でも政策的に位置付けられている。日本の環境保全型農業は、環境保全効果のレベルに応じた施策が講じられており、
Shree Kumar Maharjan(TAOYAKA Program, Hiroshima University)・
Maharjan, Keshav Lall（Hiroshima University）:
“Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA): A review and analysis of policies/plans and practices in South Asia”
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an emerging concept in agriculture to deal with the climate change. This paper presents the similarities and differences among on the concept, policies and practices in relation to CSA in South Asia particularly focusing to Nepal, India and Bangladesh. These countries have different climatic contexts, but most of the farmers rely on rainfall for the agriculture, which is main source of livelihood and food security. This study applied the scoping review of climate policies/plans and practices focusing on published papers and policies relating to climate change and agriculture. It was found that the number of climate policies/plans have specifically prioritized agriculture and food security in these countries. However, the CSA practices were different based on the local climatic contexts either initiated by farmers themselves or supported by the government, non-government and other agencies. Farmers initiated CSA practices were mostly spontaneous whereas agencies supported practices were planned guided by the climate policies/plans. However, these policies and practices lack specific indicators in order to assess the successes. Many of these practices were common prior to emergence of CSA concept and approach. Thus, further researches are required in this field to better understand the CSA concept, approaches and mechanisms.