2019年度 HINDAS 第5回 研究集会 報告
【場所】Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi
“Mapping Diversity and Specialization of Regional Economic Structure:
A Comparative Study of India and Japan”
The total population from census surveys generally provides us with information regarding how big a country is, allowing us to make comparisons with other countries. The mapping of census data contributes to the understanding of regional human and social activities nationwide. This presentation compares regional economic activities and their geographical distributions, namely spatial structures, between India and Japan based on the 2011 Census Data of India and the 2015 Population Census of Japan. The regional economic structures composed of agricultural, manufacturing, and service sectors of both countries are analyzed using the index of industrial variety/diversity and specialization.
In Japan, a theoretical framework has been demonstrated as being capable of describing and analyzing the formation and transformation of economic regions and their divisions of labor within a national economy. This framework clearly explains the location of industries and the uneven regional development in Japan from the late 1950s, starting with the high economic growth, to the 1990s. During this period, because of international competitiveness, leading industries including steel, machinery, electric, electronic, and automobile had led the growth of the national economy of Japan. Their investment also formed industrial towns and drove the growth of regional economies in non-metropolitan areas.
Specialization of a regional economic structure not only explains the emergence of some industrial towns with manufacturing activities but is also a key concept for understanding the formation of localization economies such as an industrial cluster or agglomeration with external economies of scale. However, in order to understand the spatial structure of the national economies, it is necessary to consider not only the localization economies but also the urbanization economies. This understanding might be helpful to illuminate India’s leapfrogging economic development and the eroding regional economy in Japan’s industrial towns. The degree of industrial diversity within a region is one of the critical indices for urbanization economies and is associated with an overall closeness to economic activities. In this presentation, some maps of these indices will be used to show the geographical distribution of the regional economic structures and to discuss the relationship between geography and economic development in India and Japan.
“Spatial patterns of inter-state migration in India”
Since the implementation of the economic liberalization in 1991, India’s economy has continuously developed and brought about rapid spatial changes such as the progress of big cities, increase in industrial areas, and so on. On the other hand, the high fertility rate in India generates a primarily young workforce in the urban labor market every year. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify the spatial patterns of inter-state migration in India, which has experienced rapid economic development since 1991. Through the analysis of inter-state migration, it can contribute not only to understanding the complex characteristics of India’s population movement but also to clarifying the regional spatial structure of contemporary India. To approach the issue, we used migration series data from recent censuses in India for analysis. The data were expressed in the form of a 31×31 matrix in 1991, and a 35×35 matrix in 2001 and 2011, depicting the origin–destination migration.
By analyzing the origin–destination migration matrix, we identified the following seven main regions or states: Maharashtra; Gujarat; Delhi and its neighboring states; Tamil Nadu; Karnataka; West Bengal; and Assam. Maharashtra is the most important destination for India’s inter-state migration and it accounts for more than 15% of the variance throughout the period. Gujarat and Karnataka successfully scaled higher among the in-migration states because of the rapid increase in job opportunities for males. Assam and Tamil Nadu mainly maintained their ranking from the 1990s to the present. On the other hand, West Bengal experienced a decrease in its migrant population, primarily because of stagnant economic development. Delhi and its neighboring states were still considered a single region before 2001. However, Delhi, Haryana, and Punjab have begun demonstrating unique features of migration flows, and this weakens the explanatory power of considering them a single unit in 2011. Furthermore, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, which have high population densities, were still playing crucial roles in providing migrants for the regions located in the western and northern parts of India.