Laboratory of T. SUGIMOTO,  Architectural History and Design Theory,
  Department of Architecture,  Graduate School of Engineering,  HIROSHIMA UNIVERSITY
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Toshimasa SUGIMOTO,  Shutaro NAGATA 

                (This is the English version of a paper published in Japanese “Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering”, Architectural Institute of Japan, NO.493, pp.223-229, Mar.1997, which is put into English in April 2012 by the authors.)

  1. Foreword

       November 1, 1921, the idea competition (Ideenwettbewerb) with prize money sponsored by Turmhaus Aktiengesellschaft (Tower Building Co. Ltd.) to propose a high-rise building at the north-side front of  Friedrichstrasse S-Bahn (city rapid transit railway) Station in Berlin was proclaimed to the architects belonging to the German architects association (BDA), which is named generally in English as "Friedrichstrasse Office Building Competition". The deadline was January 2, 1922, two months later, and the number of applications counted 144 successfully. What was demanded is a site plan (scales 1/400), floor plans (scales 1/200), sections (scales 1/200), elevations (scales 1/200), and perspective drawings (two from two specified viewpoints, based on scales 1/200), and an exhibition was planned from the beginning where those drawings should be exhibited. The height of the building was designated as 80m, as it was the motivation of this competition that the restriction of building height was officially weakened and it had a meaning of enlightenment.

       Actually the exhibition was held from February 5, 1922 in the hall of the Berlin municipal government building, and it was introduced to the architectural magazine etc., and called a big echo. It was a manifestation of the will to realize the first building in Berlin to be equivalent to a skyscraper. Although the competition was only an idea competition with a prize that is not connected with execution, some avant-garde architects of Berlin tackled exploitation of a new architectural image, taking advantage of this opportunity.

       As a result, the first prize was given to the group of A. Baecker, J. Brahm and R. Kasteleiner, the second prize to the group of Luckhardt brothers and F. Hoffmann, the third prize to W.G. Koch and the fourth prize to six proposals including O. Kohtz and others. H. Scharoun's bold expressionistic proposal was added to one of the fine works, but it is said that Mies's proposal named "Wabe(beehive)"  as the application name was almost disregarded from the beginning of selection.

       It was a proposal of which the outer walls are unsupported and made as the glass curtain wall over total surface, stacking standard floor plans to the total height, that was going to spread as a style of multistory office building later, but was too bold at that time to be understood even by progressive critics 2). However, Mies himself seemed to have considered this competition proposal as a precious one those days, and that proposal was printed in the magazine "Frülicht" , summer edition of 1922 3) . Its meaning was understood gradually assisted by his positive posture, and only Mies's proposal became well known among the works of this competition today 4).

       Several kinds of perspectives, plans, and one elevation are known as Mies's proposal for the competition of Friedrichstrasse Office Building 5). However, in fact, it is not clear what kind of drawings Mies actually submitted. Its inclination to the expressionistic tendency was very exceptional, if Mies's later architectural works and views are taken into consideration, and it is said also as an unknown portion what kind of background there was.

        Here, representation by CG (Computer Graphics) of this Mies's proposal for the competition of Friedrichstrasse Office Building has been tried 6). Analytic research about the content of the design is necessary as a premise for representation, and the work is accompanied by detailed examination of the drawings. There are some facts which newly became clear in this research process, which shall be reported here. Additionally, the aspect which has been regarded as Mies's inclination to Expressionism is examined and summarized, and its meaning from the viewpoint of the history of Modern Architecture is reviewed.

              This research has also an intention to explore a new research method which makes it the analysis means of architectural history to represent the historic architectural works with the contemporary technology of CAD data processing and CG rendering 7). By the way, since this research puts weight on CG image data creation which needs much quantity of work and its use for analysis, and not much weight on the strict and detailed research of the original historic drawings, it is to be remembered that this is the research using mainly secondary material, such as monographs and the publications of the drawing collection.



 2. Reconstruction of the Project and its CG Rendering

  (1) Reconstruction of the project

       Five perspective drawings in total are known including rough sketches (Fig. 1) 8). Although they appear as one and same project apparently, they differ delicately in fact. Moreover, there is a problem that they do not correspond to the existing plan, on which is stated later.


       There remain several kinds of plan, which have almost same profile but differ respectively in the angle of pointing end at the corner delicately (Fig. 2 left) 9). The basic plan form is the star shape with three edges and has a circular elevator hall at the center. Each one of three lozenge portions has profile similar to a leaf of maple which has a sharpened tip in each, of which two of them are of same profile and the third swell at the tip and articulated additionally. Seen from Friedrichstrasse Rail Station situated on the south of the site (left side of the plan) , it is designed as symmetry (the west side is more pointing and slightly larger than the east side caused from the site) , and the acute angle view of the north corner is emphasized especially, which is contained by Friedrichstrasse (lower side of plan) and Spree river (upper right of plan) .

 As an elevation only one is known in which shade expression is added (Fig. 2 right) 10).

  (a)  Classification of perspectives

       As a result of examining five perspectives in detail, they have been classified into two groups. Group a is those articulated more intricately at the tip portion stretching up, and group b is those of simpler. Moreover, as for group a, the vertical line is emphasized displaying mullions of outer wall, and as for group b, the horizontal line is expressed comparatively strong displaying slabs which are visible through glass wall.

       It is possible that there were trial and error in the design process, and impossible to decide easily on which order these perspectives were drawn. Here, as a tentative proposal, supposing the order of creation of these perspectives, the number of ① - ⑤ is given as shown in Fig. 1.

     1) group a

Perspective ①  It is a rough sketch and it seems that it was drawn on the early stage. It seems that the viewpoint to watch the building was adjusted to the viewpoint position B (as is in Fig.4) which was defined in the prescriptions of entry.

Perspective ②  It is the perspective viewing through Friedrichstrasse from south, and the viaduct of S-Bahn appears at this side of the picture. It is montaged with the real photograph, in which the proposed design is drawn freehand and shade and shadow expression is added. However, the appearance of the pointing edge is not in accordance with any of the remained plans, and is rather equivalent to the more complicated edge at the north.

Perspective ③  It is the montage of the perspective view through Friedrichstrasse looking south from north with a real photograph. As the photograph when Weidendam Bridge was under rebuilding was used here, the road at the Spree is interrupted with a board fence and the trussed structure of a new bridge is visible to the right hand. The horizontal lines showing slabs were added roughly with freehand  in the glass wall after drawing perpendicular contour lines, which suggests it was turned around this stage from the emphasis of vertical expression to that of the level expression.

     2) group b

Perspective ④    It is montaged using the same photograph as perspective ③. Compared between them, the north end became simpler and same as the other two ends, and it turns out that the level expression of the slabs of each story visible through the glass wall was emphasized. Furthermore, when examined overlaying both perspectives, it is found that the number of stories is same 20, but it seems that the height was added about 8m and it was changed to be expressed more pointing at the tip.

 Perspective ⑤    As this is the completely same composition as perspective ④, it is the work which was drawn using the latter as the model and expressing with charcoal uniformly including a circumference scene. This is the scenery which is expected after the rebuilding Weidendam Bridge , and so telegraph poles etc. are removed, and the viaduct of S-Bahn and the new townscape are also drawn.

  (b)  Reconstruction of plan 

       The existing plan does not correspond to any of the perspectives. Then, supposing that variations were examined based on this plan, it was tried to reconstruct from perspectives and three sorts of plan were found as a result.

 <reconstructed plan 1> : from the remained plan (Fig. 2 left) . (Fig. 3-1)

 <reconstructed plan 2> : reconstruction from perspective ①, ②, and ③. (Fig. 3-2)

 <reconstructed plan 3> : reconstruction from perspective ④ and ⑤. (Fig. 3-3)

  (c)  Positioning of drawings

       It is perspective ⑤ which was published in the magazine "Frühlicht", No. 4, the summer edition of 1922. Therefore, this might be considered as the final ideal image for Mies.

       It is said that Mies's proposal was made out of selection from the beginning by the jury in the competition, expelled to a corner during the exhibition of the competition proposals and not been taken seriously. Mies considered it as was regarded as a half-joking proposal, but it seems because there was a lot of violations of the condition rather.

       In fact, Mies's proposal did not correspond at all to the character as a complex facility of various uses as was designated in the prescription for the use of the building. As the condition for design the upper floors were designated as office space or display space, and the basement was designated as shops. Furthermore cafes and a movie theater were expected in addition, especially the circulation from the station to Weidendam Bridge and the approach from the subway station at Friedrichstrasse were made necessary, and therefore preparing an arcade (passage) is suggested to be appropriate 12). Mies's drawings showed that it was an extremely simple proposal that cannot satisfy such conditions.

              There might be doubt whether any of these perspectives were really the submitted drawing for the competition. Anyway, as long as observed from remained materials, it is to say that Mies did not have intention to win the competition, but utilized the competition as a means to pursue his ideal of architectural modeling. It is considered therefore that these perspectives were born from his strong expression will.

 (2)  CG picture making


       Based on each reconstructed plan, three sorts of three-dimensional data were created having same height, since it is written in the prescriptions as follows, 4m for each floor height, 20 stories, and 80m high to the top. The simple and clear architectural form without no ornament needs extremely little quantity of data used for the computer. In addition, in order to put emphasis on outer view here, the data for the elevator and toilet etc. located at the core, and also piers, which were not drawn in Mies's own plan, were omitted in this occasion.

       As for the circumference urban district, the outlines of the buildings around the Friedrichstrasse Rail Station were extracted from 1/4000 map of Berlin made by Berlin City (around 1910 to 1920) 13), and the height of the eaves of the buildings was assumed as about 10-20m using the urban photographs of those days etc. for reference, which were used for the volume expression in CG.

       CG pictures have been rendered from the viewpoints A and B (Fig.4), 2m in height as is designated in the prescriptions for the competition, but those did not correspond to the perspectives which Mies drew. Then, a trial-and-error method was applied so that the lines of the building's eaves and the pointing angle of the corner view might become same, and the viewpoint position was found in return (Fig. 4, viewpoints from 1 to 4).

       Viewpoints are calculated from perspective ② and <reconstructed plan 2>.

              - drawn adjusting to the scenery of the townscape... viewpoint 1

              - drawn adjusting to the view of the high-rise building... viewpoint 2 14)

       Viewpoints are calculated from perspective ④ and <reconstructed plan 3>.

              - drawn adjusting to the view of the office building... viewpoint 3

              - drawn adjusting to the scenery of the townscape... viewpoint 4

              Although it seems that Mies drew perspectives taking the designated conditions into consideration to a certain grade since viewpoint 2 and viewpoint A, and viewpoint 3 and viewpoint B are near, the appearance of the object building differs so clearly that cannot be supposed that Mies intended to correspond to the prescription of the competition, even if some error in the reconstruction process should be taken into consideration. It is judged that the viewpoint was already changed intentionally when townscape was taken in for the sake of montage with a photograph.

       Fig. 5 shows the CG pictures drawn from the total six viewpoints, i.e., four reconstructed viewpoints and two viewpoints A and B designated in the competition, according to three reconstructed plans.

       CG pictures from characteristic viewpoint positions are presented as reference figures (Fig. 6).

       As for the remained elevation with shade and shadow (Fig2), corresponding CG picture was created (Fig. 7). Applying a trial-and-error method in quest of accordance with the width of the elevation, and the expression of the light reflection on the wall surface, it is assumed as the elevation along Friedrichstrasse (east elevation) of <reconstructed plan 1> ,although there remains uncertainty. The expression of the light reflection on the elevation drawn by Mies is so complicated that it seems impossible to emerge only by the glass plane in front. The complicated appearance is observed on the CG picture because the irregularly positioned glass walls at the back hand are penetrating forward, which resembles the appearance of this original elevation and suggests that Mies might have taken penetration light into consideration.


 3. "Glass Skyscraper" project

 (1) Examination of a design proposal

       Mies was groping for a design possibility of a new high-rise building, even after the Friedrichstrasse Office Building competition was over. Then he created a bold high-rise building project with curved glass surface, generally known as "Glass Skyscraper" project, and published in the magazine "Frülicht" together with the competition proposal (Fig. 8 ) 17).


        It is said that there remain unknown points on how this bold proposal was born 18). As for the influence to this project, the expressionistic tendency such as J.H. Arp's abstract art, H. Finsterlin's architectural sculpture, H. Häring's proposal for the competition of "Friedrichstrasse Office Building" 19) have been mentioned, but the most important is Häring's proposal as for the architectural influence. It is because that Mies and Häring were said to have worked in the same office at those days and that a direct influence is guessed since they submitted to the same competition.

 (2)  Making of CG data

    Three dimensional data was reconstructed and CG pictures were made from a plan for "Glass Skyscraper" project assuming simply that the floor height is 4m and the total height of building 120m, because it had 30 stories. As for the position of pillars, Mies examined flexible distribution corresponding to the curved surface form, and the structural form that columns support the flat slab with no beams is taken for the architectural model. However, finally, the pillars were not drawn in the plan, and they are omitted here for the sake of simplification of data. Mies took photographs including the clay model of the surrounding buildings in the urban district, but it is simplified for the representation since the specific site was not supposed. As for model photograph, three pieces are known 22).Here, CG pictures were rendered with viewing angles adjusted to the original model photographs (Fig. 9). However, exact definition of viewpoint positions is difficult because of curved surface form, and the viewpoint was computed from near accordance of a skyline etc.


       It seems that one of them means a night view, which is taken so that the background is dark and the undersurface of slabs shining white is visible penetrating glass (Fig. 8 left and Fig. 9 center) 23).

       And the model photograph which emphasizes the pointing edge similar to that of the Friedrichstrasse Office Building project is found peculiarly that it is taken from the viewpoint which is in fact located underground, and that it is not the figure visible actually (Fig. 9 right). Indeed, as a sketch drawn by an assistant Sergius M. Ruegenberg remains which shows that Mies was squatting down, setting the light source assumed as the sun and lighting toward the model on the table and looking up at it, it is considered that the photo was taken by a camera actually set below the table 24).

       One elevation view added with shade and shadow just same as the case of a Friedrichstrasse Office Building project is known 25), and a CG picture corresponding to its composition is rendered. A trial-and-error method was applied to resemble the width and figure of shade and shadow, but no CG picture in accordance with it sufficiently was obtained, and only a picture which resembles to some extent is presented here (Fig. 10). From this result, it is considered that the elevation view is equivalent to the view of the bottom side in the remained plan (direction unknown) (Fig. 8 center) .

 4. Evaluation of the Work through CG Representation


  (1) Exaggerated expression of the perspective

       As is explained already, the montaged picture overlaying the perspective of Friedrichstrasse Office Building project and the real photograph was composed from two pictures of different viewpoints, and found in fact as an inaccurate scenery. It is impossible to say clearly whether such an inaccurate expression depends on Mies's carelessness, or was an intentional artistic collage expression.

       It is said that Mies had been reluctant to include two high-rise building projects into the publication 27). It is not to tell whether it was only since it was a work of a simply unripe time or whether there were any other reasons.

       As it is judged from the drawing, it is certain that Mies tried to emphasize especially the edge of the high-rise building so far as to be seen peculiar. It is possible that, the perspective is drawn with such intention from the beginning, a photograph of the street was taken from different viewpoint on the other hand, and the montage photograph was dared to be invented. Therefore, it can be said that, even if slightly, there was a tendency of an expressionistic exaggeration also in Mies, who is regarded generally as having attached importance to the genuineness in the architectural modeling 28). After all, it seems that Mies's intention of expression was to emphasize the new architectural form which stretches up in the shape of a spire in the street scene where the conventional buildings in the style of Historicism arrayed, and deny its scenery so to speak.


 (2)  Expressionistic spire motif

         There is an example which utilized for the design the pointed edge of the site, namely "Chilehaus" (Hamburg, 1921-24) by F. Häger, and the mutual relation is sometimes discussed. However, this building was put into construction in 1922, namely after the end of the competition, and it is hard to consider that this building affected Mies 29).

       The inclination to Expressionism was especially strong at the time of utopian movement just after the First World War, and the motif of the Gothic spire was praised in it. It was watched in various architects' design projects, the tendency of the Gothic Expressionism represented by "Alpine Architecture" (1919) of B. Taut as the first in a roll, and cast the shadow even to the W. Gropius's "March Revolution Monuments" (Weimar, 1921). Even the correlation with a watercolor sketch "Principle of Architecture" (1920) of Scharoun which call association to a spire of crystal is pointed out 30). It is thought that Mies was also influenced by Gothic spire boom like a fever.

       The building had indeed flat roof and actually no spire itself here, but an appearance like a spire arose from the characteristic of the corner lot. As is explained above, it is certain that Mies dared to create a montaged perspective exaggerated more than the actual scenery, and took a step toward the spire motif apparently.

       H. Häring, who was in a directly close relationship, made a proposal of which the a plan was emphasizing truly the corner lot and also a perspective was actually drawn with spire motif, and so it might be considered that Mies was influenced from that.

 (3)  Horizontality and verticality in expression

         There were two sorts among Mies's perspective, namely one which emphasize horizontality and on which emphasize verticality on the surface of glass wall. Emphasis of verticality was performed by drawing mullions on the glass wall and making sequence of vertical axes. Emphasis of the horizontality, differed from it qualitatively, was produced from the intention to show that the internal slabs were visible through the glass wall.

       Mies advocated that the expression of structure build architectural beauty in the text published in the magazine "Frühlicht", as often pointed out 31).

       In the well known perspective of the "Office Building" project (magazine "G" , No. 1, 1923) 32) , the horizontality expressed by the pillars and beams of the Rahmen construction built with reinforced concrete or its spandrel wall was emphasized, together with the transparent sequential windows which runs horizontally. It is known that Mies emphasized consistently the rational structural beauty produced from the frame construction since then, of which the starting point was regarded in the Friedrichstrasse Office Building project. It seems that is infallible, however, there was no expression of pillars in the perspective of this project in fact, and it is hard to suppose that the form of supporting structure itself was the main theme. There could be rather found a vacillation between horizontality and verticality of abstract expression, and it should be recognized that only the static structural beauty was not necessarily a theme 33).

       Verticality is also found in the sharp vertical expression produced by ZIG ZAG of the surface of wall and a group of edges of concave portions cut in deeply, and moreover the perpendicular white belts of reflecting light, etc. Such perpendicular white belts are in fact hardly produced on the flat glass surface of wall like Friedrichstrasse Office Building project, and rather produced on the curved (polygonal) glass wall like "Glass Skyscraper" project, as is known by CG pictures presented here. In the case of the latter, to be sure, the perpendicular belt of reflecting light can be found out in the model photograph (refer to Fig. 9). It is known that Mies examined somewhat the viewing angle putting light to the model as mentioned above. He might have learned there to regard the perpendicular belts of reflecting light as an expression technique of glass wall, and applied it to the perspectives ③, ④, and ⑤ of Friedrichstrasse Office Building project in spite of having only flat glass walls.

 (4)  Reflexibility and transparency of glass

         Mies focused on the reflexibility of glass and marked contrast to that W. Gropius showed concern to the transparency of glass and B. Taut to the refraction light of prism glass 34). In Mies's text published in the magazine "Frühlicht" is stated as follows, that he focused on the effect of the reflexibility of glass clearly.

       "An experiment of a glass model showed me the way. And I got to know immediately that using glass is not important in the effect of light and shadow, but in the rich play by the reflection of light. I tried that by another project published here. " 35)

       In fact, "another project" stated here is "Glass Skyscraper" project. He wrote additionally, the curved surface form is by no means arbitrary, and even a result of trial and error about the effect of the light on a glass model.

       In both perspectives (montaged pictures with photograph) of the following "Adam Building" project (Leipzigstrasse, Berlin, 1928) 36) and the competition proposal for the Alexanderplatz renewal (Berlin, 1928) 37), the wall of the architectural volume of a rectangular parallelepiped was made as whole glass surface, and expression of reflexibility was introduced in both cases as of the same kind as Friedrichstrasse Office Building project, and furthermore expression of mirror effect was added. Moreover, in the project of the whole surface glass of the two proposals for "Competition for the building of the place at Friedrichstrasse Rail Station" sponsored by Berlin Traffic Company co. Ltd. in 1929, the same technique was used for the expression of the glass wall which curved making a concave circular arc 38).

       Mies has noticed that the reflexibility of light makes a wonderful effect especially on the curved glass surface. Mies did not use such extreme curved glass wall later, and the curved surface of the "Glass Skyscraper" project is taken sometimes as a delusion of a moment, but Mies's peculiar vision about glass was brought up through such experiments and continued for the time being.

       Although Mies drew on the perspective the light reflected white on the large glass wall, it is of no doubt that he estimated the transparency equally and utilized also. The transparency and reflectivity of daytime view and night view were shown by the different photographs respectively taken from the model of a "Glass Skyscraper" project, and Mies's intention of expression was checked anew through the CG representation.

 (5)  Character of the Expressionism in Mies

         It is clear that Mies inclined to Expressionism from 1921 to 22. In turn, he designed bold projects of residential house of brick and reinforce concrete showing inclination to Constructivism from 1923 to 24. Namely, he made various experimental trials in relation to the art movements in the first half of the 1920s, but the tone of Expressionism disappeared early. Utopian architectural movement occurred generally in Germany for several years just after the First World War, and it is understandable that Mies was also strongly influenced by Expressionists.

       Two high-rise building projects were indeed what show structural rationality on the one hand, but they were also what show remarkable inclination to the expression on the other hand. Mies wrote that a "prism form" is suitable as the site is triangular in the Friedrichstrasse Office Building project, and further, "I have given angle to each facade plane, in order to avoid the danger of a dead image which is often produced when using glass in large scale 39)", and justified the expressionistic form born as a result as not arbitrary. The coexistence of both linear and curved tendencies, namely having given the stimulative acute angle on the one hand and having bought in the curved surface on the other hand, is the same as what is found out in general Expressionism art.

              However, as Mies considered that the architectural form were classified into the stabilized portion and the free portion and that the curved form were the manifestation of the freedom, and then it was different for him from the arbitrary design observed in Expressionism. Namely, it should be rather considered that it is borne from the composition of form and freedom which is equivalent to the dualism of Neoclassicism and Romanticism 41 ).

 5. Conclusion

       Concerning Mies's high-rise building projects in early 1920s with many mysteries, its framework of design intention has become clear to a certain degree, and also it has become clear that Mies was struggling for the invention of the expression technique those days. Although only few drawings are left behind, they reveal that Mies made trial and error about the expression there. It is not possible to make completely definite how the design was processed, but a tentative plan might be presented here. There, it has been examined about the reflexibility and transparency of glass, and the shift from verticality expression to horizontality expression has been guessed. It has been summarized to some extent what kind of influence the tendency of Expressionism especially had in Mies.

       The method of CG representation has clarified the exaggerated expression of perspectives here, and has been useful for verification of the reflexibility of glass. In order to compute viewpoint positions backward from perspectives, it might be possible through geometric processing on a drawing, but here the technique of exploring accordance with the figure on perspectives by trial and error was effective. Probably in such meanings, it could be said that such technique has been effective for the analysis of the perspective and the form analysis which was hard to break in by the conventional method of research, and there has been obtained a certain result as a trial of methodology.

       However, this research has left a room for further inquiry at some points such as comparison with the original drawings. And also it seems that this result has left many points to be discussed in relation with other works of Mies or as a problem of the history of the German Modern Architecture from the viewpoint of architectural history. However the discussion mentioned above might be considered as a provisionally meaningful result of this research.



    This research is a part of result promoted by the Japanese Ministry of Education grants-in-aid-for-scientific-research in the 1995 fiscal year, general research (C), subject number 07650740.



1)  About the progress of the competition and its result, the following exhibition catalog by Bauhaus Archiv and Technical University of Berlin was referred to. "Der Schrei nach dem Turmhaus, Der Ideenwettbewerb Hochhaus am Bahnhof Friedrichstraße Berlin 1921/22", Berlin, 1988. About the application outline, "Preisausschreiben der Turmhaus-Aktiengesellschaft Berlin", Ibid., pp.36-37.

2) Although several criticisms were published, M. Berg alone mentioned Mies/s project immediately after the competition and even A. Behne and L. Hilberseimer did not pay attention. See Ibid., pp.309-320.

3) Bruno Taut, "Frühlicht", no.4-1922, p.124. "Hochhausprojekt für Bahnhof Friedrichstraße in Berlin"

4) After U.S. migration, Mies dealt with the high-rise building for the first time, and designed many skyscrapers which extract the color of Expressionism and emphasize structural beauty on extension of this proposal. In Ph. Johnson's monograph, two high-rise building projects are mentioned as its root.  Philip Johnson, "Mies van der Rohe", New York, 1978 (first edition 1947), pp.22-29. Blake also mentioned. Peter Blake, "The Master Builders, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe and Frank Lloyd Wright", New York, 1960. (Jananese translation by Masao Tanaka, Kozo Okudaira "Gendai Kenchiku no Kyoshou", Shokokusha Publishing, 1967, pp.173 - 178.)   However in the publications by these days, some mistaken suppositions are found about work years or formation progress, etc. After those days, although there has been no big change in general evaluation, the following monograph etc. in which evaluation of materials has become more exact have appeared, and they are referred to here. Franz Schulze, "Mies van der Rohe and A Critical Biography", 1985. (Japanese translation by Akira Sawamura, Kajima Institute Publishing, 1987, pp.99 -104.)  David Spaeth, "Mies van der Rohe", New York, 1985. (Japanese translation by Tetsuyuki Hirano, Kajima Institute Publishing, 1988, pp.56 -60.) Fritz Neumeyer, "Mies van der Rohe, Das kunstlose Wort", Berlin, 1986, pp.25-53. The followings were referred to moreover. Dietrich Neumann, 'The early designs by Mies van der Rohe', in: "Perspecta", no.27, 1992, pp.76-97. Detlef Mertins, 'Mies's Skyscraper "Project": Towards the Redemption of Technical Structure', in: Detlef Mertins(ed.), "The Presence of Mies", New York, 1994, pp.48-67.

5) Arthur Drexler(ed.), "The Mies van der Rohe Archive, Volume One", New York & London, 1986, pp.46-53. Franz Schulze(ed.), "The Mies van der Rohe Archive, Volume 5", New York & London, 1990, p.9. "Der Schrei", pp.106-111.

6) Although some trials to represent CG about Mies's high-rise building projects can already be seen, there is nothing that added form analysis of design or examination of drawing conditions for perspectives such as this paper. Technische Hochschule Darmstadt(Hrsg.), "Bauhaus, Architektur als Vision", Heidelberg, 1994, pp.44-49.

7) Sugimoto used the research method of such CG representation for the research on German Neoclassicism architecture for the first time in the following paper. Toshimasa Sugimoto, "Study on the Historic Architectural Perspective through Computer Graphic Representation - Perspective Drawings by F. Gilly and K. F. Schinkel – ", Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Japan “Kenchikushigaku”, No.24, March 1995, Tokyo, pp.2-31.(in Japanese)This paper is the first report of the wide range research plan using such new research method to re-examine the architectural works and projects of the German modern architecture around 1910 to 1930, namely those of B. Taut, W. Gropius, E. Mendelsohn and others besides L. Mies van der Rohe.

8)  Fig. 1- ① and ⑤ are preserved in Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) , New York (MOMA, Archive:20.5, and 6) and others are missing.

9)  There are three plans preserved in MOMA. MOMA, Archive: 20.3. See Drexler, op.cit. Another one with a little distortion is known which was printed in a publication. See "Der Schrei", op.cit..

10) MOMA and Archive: 20.7.

11) See Spaeth, op.cit., Japanese translation, p.60. Fritz Neumeyer, "Mies van der Rohe, Das kunstlose Wort",Berlin,1986,p.26.

12) "Der Schrei", p.36.

13) Rudolf Wolters, "Stadtmitte Berlin", Tübingen, 1978, p.193.

14) Although the office building concerned is almost invisible in fact, since this viewpoint is located under the bridge of S-Bahn, it was shown supposed that the viaduct were not existing here.

15)  A graphics workstation and three-dimensional image-processing software were used for CG image processing. Each degree of transparency, reflection, refraction, and mirroring attenuation is set to the glass material, and shade and shadow processing was performed with the ray tracing method. Clouds are expressed by texture mapping in the sky, and reflected on the glass surface. For the condition of Fig. 5, the solar position as a light source is set up as that of morning in the southeast.

16)  Although it is described as "east elevation" in Drexler, op.cit., p.50, it is described as "the side of Reichstagufer", namely north-west elevation, in "Der Schrei", p.107.

17) Drawings and photographs are used from the following. Drexler, op.cit., pp.62-68. Schulze, op.cit., p.13.

18) Concerning it the following Japanese paper was referred to. Junichi Sano, "On the Design Process of the Plan of Glass Skyscraper Project by Mies Van Der Rohe", the "Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering", No. 467 (January, 1995), pp.199-205. (in Japanese)

19)  Mies himself denied the influence from Expressionism including Arp. See  Spaeth, Japanese translation, p.60.

20) "Der Schrei",pp.80-85. Heinrich Lauterbach & Jürgen Joedicke, "Hugo Häring - Schriften, Entwürfe, Bauten", Stuttgart, 1965, pp.90-91.

21) By the way, CG picture was made only concerning the volumetric expression of Friedrichstrasse Office Building project by H. Häring, it is omitted here. The outline of that CG picture is in accordance to the sketch drawn by Häring.

22)  Three photographs are in "Frühlicht", no.4-1922, pp.122, 123. See Schulze, Japanese translation, p.102 (Fig. 64). Concerning the last one, there is another photograph which is guessed the same one was montaged later in 1928 with the real view photograph taken in front of Friedrichstrasse. See "Der Schrei", pp.181, 183. Corresponding CG pictures are Fig. 9 center, right, left, in the same sequence.

23) Research by Darmstadt Technical University also created CG picture of a night view, and interpreted it as having been in the intention of Mies. See "Bauhaus", p.48.

24) See Neumann, op.cit., p.97.

25) MOMA, Archive: 21.6. By the way, a certainly similar figure which was printed on the cover of the magazne "G", No. 3, it has 21 stories and does not correspond. It seems a variation was created as a design for this cover. "G - Zeitschrift der elementare Gestaltung", no.3, 1924.

26) Jochen Meyer has also discovered the inaccuracy of this perspective through model work and supposed that Mies wanted a more dynamic expression. But he has not analyzed up to the concrete viewpoint position of the perspective. The analysis by CG is effective on research work in this point. See "Der Schrei", p.106.

27) Beatriz Colomina, 'Mies Not', in: Detlef Mertins (ed.), "The Presence of Mies", New York, 1994, p.208.

28) Although the view of "Less is More" is observed enough also here, it meant here the denial of the ornament of Historicism on the same level as Adolf Loos. However, unlike the reductive rationalism of a sirloin, active expression will is also accepted there.

29) Akira Hasegawa, "Study of the Northern Germany Expressionism Architecture", the doctoral dissertation of Waseda University , November, 1990, p.152.(in Japanese)

30) Collection in Akademie der Künste, Berlin. Neumeyer, op.cit., pp.28-30.

31) "Frühlichit", no.4, 1922, p.124. See Schulze, Japanese translation, p.100.

32) Mies van der Rohe, 'Bürohaus', in: "G",no.1,1923,p.3. Perspective is MOMA, Archive: 46.1.

33) Colin Rowe pointed out the symbolism of Mies's Office Building project, comparing with the practical efficiency of the "Chicago frame". Colin Rowe, "The Mathematics of Ideal Villa and Other Essays", Cambridge, 1976.Japanese translation by Toyoo Ito and Yasumitsu Matsunaga, Shokokusha Publishing, 1981, pp.141-5. The root of the expression problem of Mullion observed in Seagram Building etc., which is generally mentioned, can be also found out here in such expression of verticality.

34) It was lucidly shown in the "Glashaus" by B. Taut and "Model Office and Factory" by W. Gropius and A. Meyer in the Deutscher Werkbund Cologne Exhibition (1914),.

35) "Frühlicht", no.4, 1922, p.124.This is often quoted with Japanese translation, but author's translation is presented here.

36) See Schulze, Japanese translation, p.148.

37) See Ibid., p.150.

38) See "Der Schrei", p.184. (Berliner Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft, "Wettbewerb zur Bebauung des Platzes am Bahnhof Friedrichstr.")

39) "Frühlicht", op.cit .. This is also author's translation here.

40) Ibid .

41) Sugimoto has pointed out this point concerning German Neoclassicism architecture. For example, Toshimasa Sugimoto, "German Neoclassicism Architecture", Chuo Koron Bijutsu Shuppan publishing, 1996, p.66. (in Japanese)


 <source of figure>

 Fig.1-①, ⑤, 2-right, left, 8-center, right = Drexler, op.cit.

Fig.1-②, ③, ④= "Der Schrei".

Fig.8-left = Johnson, op.cit. 

 (c) Toshimasa Sugimoto