The following paper is now available online!
Varghese, V., Chikaraishi, M., Kato, H. (2020) Analysis of Travel-Time Use in Crowded Trains using Discrete-Continuous Choices of Commuters in Tokyo, Japan, Transportation Research Record (Accepted).
Travel-based multitasking and the possibility to perform activities during travel are important factors that can make a transportation mode attractive. However, serious crowding in public transportation systems might adversely affect the passengers’ free choice to participate in activities during travel. This study aims to examine how crowding in public transportation systems is related to discrete-continuous choices in different types of multitasking options using a data set of 500 commuters in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Employing a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, this study investigates the relationship between crowding levels and multitasking behavior. The results show that high crowding levels, relative to being seated, have a significantly negative association with many multitasking options, which suggests the importance of seat availability. The estimation results also show that information and communication technology (ICT)-dependent leisure activities and non-ICT active activities, such as reading and talking with other passengers, have the lowest satiation and higher baseline preference constants, which indicates that they are preferred by passengers. Meanwhile, crowding levels were observed to have a significant relationship with these multitasking activities. Finally, the key findings, contributions, and policy implications of the findings are discussed.