The following paper is now available online:
Ishii, Y., Hayakawa, K., Koide, S., & Chikaraishi, M. (2022). Entropy Tucker model: Mining latent mobility patterns with simultaneous estimation of travel impedance parameters. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 137, 103559.
With the rapid increase in the availability of passive data in the field of transportation, combining machine learning with transportation models has emerged as an important research topic in recent years. This study proposes an entropy Tucker model that integrates (1) a Tucker decomposition technique, i.e., an existing machine learning method, and (2) an entropy maximizing model, i.e., an existing model used for modeling trip distribution in the field of transportation. In addition, an optimization algorithm is presented to empirically identify the proposed model. The proposed model provides a solid theoretical foundation for the machine learning method, substantially improves prediction performance, and provides richer behavioral implications through empirical parameter estimation of travel impedance. We conducted a case study using public transit smart card data. The results showed that the proposed model improves the prediction performance and interpretability of the results compared to the conventional nonnegative Tucker decomposition technique. Further, we empirically confirmed that the travel impedance varies with the origin–destination pair, time of the day, and day of the week. Finally, we discussed how embedding the theoretical foundations of transport modeling into machine learning methods can facilitate the use of various passive data in wider practical contexts of transport policy decision making.