General Measures

Scientific Evidence

Effects of travel restrictions

  • Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., … & Viboud, C. (2020). The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science.

Abstract: Motivated by the rapid spread of COVID-19 in Mainland China, we use a global metapopulation disease transmission model to project the impact of travel limitations on the national and international spread of the epidemic. The model is calibrated based on internationally reported cases, and shows that at the start of the travel ban from Wuhan on 23 January 2020, most Chinese cities had already received many infected travelers. The travel quarantine of Wuhan delayed the overall epidemic progression by only 3 to 5 days in Mainland China, but has a more marked effect at the international scale, where case importations were reduced by nearly 80% until mid February. Modeling results also indicate that sustained 90% travel restrictions to and from Mainland China only modestly affect the epidemic trajectory unless combined with a 50% or higher reduction of transmission in the community.

HOWEVER: How much have we learned from history and lessons from other countries?

新型コロナウイルス 外出禁止を無視した人に対する各国の対応は…  インドはムチ打ちや腕立て伏せの刑、台湾は罰金及び実名公開、スペイン:外出申請アプリ開発、違反の場合、大きな罰金を科す

  • Importance of scientific information: [The Lancet] COVID-19: fighting panic with information
  • Prof. Shinya Yamanaka’s COVID-19 website (The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine): HERE (only in Japanese: 山中伸弥教授による新型コロナウイルス情報発信 )

Major debates

The debate over ending social distancing to save the economy, explained

You can find more debates by searching “debates about measures against COVID-19” from Google.


April 17 Nature: Withholding funding from the World Health Organization is wrong and dangerous, and must be reversed

Mar 17, 2020 Nature: Coronavirus: three things all governments and their science advisers must do now

Measures from a Perspective of Social and Behavioral Change

  • (Compass) COVID-19: Resources for Social and Behavior Change: here

Lessons from History